The cereal cyst nematode Heterodera avenae suppresses wheat production in the western United States. A second species of cereal cyst nematode, H. filipjevi, was identified in eastern Oregon during 2008. This paper reports the discovery of H. filipjevi–infested fields in eastern Washington, thereby extending the known distribution of H. filipjevi in the United States. The identity of H. filipjevi was determined and confirmed by species-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR), PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), sequencing, and cyst morphology. Soils that were collected from naturally infested fields in Washington were used to compare the virulence of H. avenae and H. filipjevi on six spring wheat cultivars under controlled-environment conditions. Noninfested soils from nearby fields were used as controls. Cultivars Ouyen and WB Rockland were resistant to H. avenae and susceptible to H. filipjevi. Cultivars Sönmez and SY Steelhead were resistant to H. filipjevi and susceptible to H. avenae. Cultivars Louise and WB 936 were susceptible to both species. The resistance of SY Steelhead to ‘H. avenae’, reported in a previous paper, is corrected as resistance to H. filipjevi due to an earlier misidentification of H. filipjevi. Management guidelines that include crop rotations and resistant cultivars are presented. Discovery of additional infestations of H. filipjevi are anticipated when DNA-based tests become used routinely in commercial diagnostic laboratories.