D. Mollov, National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, USDA ARS, Beltsville, MD 20705;
M. A. Guaragna, Floral and Nursery Plant Research Unit, U.S. National Arboretum, USDA ARS, Beltsville, MD 20705;
B. Lockhart, Department of Plant Pathology, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55108;
J. A. M. Rezende, Department of Phytopathology and Nematology, University of São Paulo, 13418-900 Piracicaba, SP, Brazil; and
R. Jordan, Floral and Nursery Plant Research Unit, U.S. National Arboretum, USDA ARS, Beltsville, MD 20705
Mandevilla (Apocynaceae) is an ornamental tropical vine popular for its bright and attractive flowers. During 2012 to 2013, 12 Mandevilla sp. samples from Minnesota and Florida nurseries were submitted for analysis at the University of Minnesota Plant Disease Clinic. Plants showed mosaic symptoms, leaf deformation, premature leaf senescence, and vine dieback. Filamentous virus particles with modal lengths 700 to 900 nm were observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in partially purified preparations from symptomatic leaves. Partially purified virions were obtained using 30% sucrose cushion centrifuged at 109,000 gmax for 2 h at 10°C (5). No other virus particles were observed in these samples, nor were any observed in non-symptomatic samples. One sample was submitted as potted plant (Mandevilla ‘Sunmandeho’ Sun Parasol Giant White) and was kept under greenhouse conditions for subsequent analyses. Total RNA (Qiagen) was extracted from this sample, and Potyvirus was detected using the universal primers Poty S (5′-GGN AAY AAY AGY GGN CAR CC-3′) and PV1 (5′-20(T)V-3′) (1) by reverse transcription (RT)-PCR (3). The amplified product was the expected ~1.7-kb, corresponding to the partial nuclear inclusion body gene, the coat protein (CP) gene, and the 3′ end untranslated region. The RT-PCR amplicon was cloned (NEB) and sequenced, and the 1,720-bp consensus sequence was deposited in GenBank (Accession No. KM243928). NCBI BLAST analysis at the nucleotide level revealed highest identity (83%) with an isolate of Catharanthus mosaic virus (CatMV) from Brazil (Accession No. DQ365928). Pairwise analysis of the predicted 256 amino acid CP revealed 91% identity with the CatMV Brazilian isolate (ABI94824) and 68% or less identity with other potyviruses. Two potyviruses are usually considered the same species if their CP amino acid sequences are greater than 80% identical (2). Serological analysis of the infected sample Mandevilla ‘Sunmandeho’ Sun Parasol Giant White using a CatMV specific antiserum (4) resulted in positive indirect ELISA reactions. CatMV has been previously reported in periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus) in Brazil (4). Based on the analyses by TEM, RT-PCR, nucleotide and amino acid sequence identities, and serological reactivity, we identify this virus as a U.S. Mandevilla isolate of CatMV. To our knowledge, this is the first report of Catharanthus mosaic virus both in the United States and in Mandevilla.
References: (1) J. Chen et al. Arch Virol. 146:757, 2001. (2) A. Gibbs and K. Ohshima. Ann. Rev. Phytopathol. 48:205, 2010. (3) R. L. Jordan et al. Acta Hortic. 901:159, 2011. (4) S. C. Maciell et al. Sci. Agric. Piracicaba, Brazil. 68:687, 2011. (5) D. Mollov et al. Arch Virol. 158:1917, 2013.