I. Y. Choi, Jeollabuk-do Agricultural Research and Extension Services, Iksan 570-704, Korea;
S. H. Hong, Institute of Environment and Ecology, Korea University, Seoul 136-701, Korea;
S. E. Cho,
J. H. Park, and
H. D. Shin, Division of Environmental Science and Ecological Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-701, Korea
Peucedanum japonicum Thunb., belonging to the family Apiaceae, is distributed in many Asian countries, including Korea. This plant was recently developed as an edible green and is cultivated under organic farming in Korea. In June 2013, plants showing typical symptoms of powdery mildew were found with approximately 50% disease incidence in polyethylene-film-covered greenhouses in Iksan City, Korea. Symptoms first appeared as circular white colonies, which subsequently showed abundant mycelial growth on the leaves, often covering the whole surface. Infected plants were unmarketable mainly due to signs of white fungal growths and reddish discoloration on the leaves. The same symptoms were found on P. japonicum in poly-tunnels in Iksan City and Jinan County of Korea in 2014. Voucher specimens (n = 3) were deposited in the Korea University Herbarium (KUS). Appressoria were lobed, and solitary or in opposite pairs. Conidiophores were cylindrical, 80 to 145 × 8 to 10 μm, and composed of three to four cells. Foot-cells of conidiophores were straight to substraight, cylindrical, and 25 to 63 μm long. Singly produced conidia were oblong-elliptical to oblong, occasionally ovate, 35 to 50 × 13 to 16 μm with a length/width ratio of 2.3:3.1, with angular/rectangular wrinkling of outer walls, and lacked distinct fibrosin bodies. Germ tubes were produced on the perihilar position of conidia. Primary conidia were apically conical, basally truncate, and generally smaller than the secondary conidia. No chasmothecia were found. These structures are typical of the powdery mildew Pseudoidium anamorph of the genus Erysiphe. The specific measurements and morphological characteristics were consistent with those of E. heraclei DC. (2). To confirm the identification, the complete internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of rDNA from KUS-F27872 was amplified with primers ITS1/ITS4 and sequenced. The resulting 560-bp sequence was deposited in GenBank (Accession No. KM491178). The obtained ITS sequence shared >99% similarity with those of E. heraclei from apiaceous hosts, e.g., Daucus carota (KC480605), Pimpinella affinis (AB104513), and Petroselinum crispum (KF931139). Pathogenicity was confirmed through inoculation by gently dusting conidia onto leaves of five healthy potted plants. Five non-inoculated plants served as controls. Inoculated plants developed symptoms after 6 days, whereas the control plants remained symptomless. The fungus present on the inoculated plants was identical in morphology to those observed in the field. Powdery mildew of P. japonicum caused by E. heraclei has been reported in Japan (4), and numerous reports of E. heraclei on various species of Peucedanum plants have been made in most part of Europe and East Asia (Japan and far eastern Russia) (1,3). However, this is the first report of powdery mildew caused by E. heraclei on P. japonicum in Korea. Occurrence of powdery mildews is a threat to the quality and marketability of this plant, especially in organic farming.
References: (1) K. Amano. Host Range and Geographical Distribution of the Powdery Mildew Fungi. Japan Scientific Societies Press, Tokyo, 1986. (2) U. Braun and R. T. A. Cook. Taxonomic Manual of the Erysiphales (Powdery Mildews), CBS Biodiversity Series No.11. CBS, Utrecht, 2012. (3) D. F. Farr and A. Y. Rossman. Fungal Databases, Syst. Mycol. Microbiol. Lab., online publication. ARS, USDA. Retrieved August 18, 2014. (4) S. Tanda and C. Nakashima. J. Agric. Sci., Tokyo Univ. Agric. 47:54, 2002.