B. X. Shi, Agronomy Department, Inner Mongolia Agricultural University, Hohhot, China; Economic Crop Institute, Xinjiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Urumqi, China;
G. H. Chen, Agricultural Science Institution of Nongshishi, Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps, Aletai, China;
Z. J. Zhang, Plant Protection Institute, Shanxi Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Taiyuan, China;
J. J. Hao, School of Food and Agriculture, The University of Maine, Orono, ME 04468;
H. Y. Zhou, and
J. Zhao, Agronomy Department, Inner Mongolia Agricultural University, Hohhot, China
Sunflower broomrape (Orobanche cumana Wallr.) is a holoparasitic plant that penetrates the vascular system of sunflower roots, absorbs plant nutrients and water, and thus causes stunting, reduced growth, and severe yield losses (3). To date, seven races of sunflower broomrape (O. cumana) have been identified by using international standard race differential hosts in Bulgaria, Serbia, Romania, Turkey, and Russia (4). However, the race types present in China are unknown. To identify the race composition of sunflower broomrape in China, race differential hosts of sunflower broomrape were received from Dr. Dragan Skoric (Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts, Novi Sad, Serbia): Line AD66 has no resistant genes; Kruglik-41 contains resistant gene Or1; B-RO-02A has Or2; Record has Or3; LC1002B has Or4; LC1003B has Or5; LC-1093 has Or6, and Race-G-2 has Or7 (1). Eighteen sunflower broomrape samples were collected in August of 2011, 2012, and 2013 from different provinces/locations in China, including Xinjiang (Xinyuan, Shihezi, Tekesi, Beitun, Urumqi, and Yining), Inner Mongolia (Linhe, Xixiaozhao, Wuqianqi, Tuzuoqi, Keyouqianqi, and Aohanqi), Shanxi (Hunyuan, Shilou, Mizhi, and Dingbian), Jilin (Tongyu), and Hebei (Xuanhua). The differential hosts were each inoculated with the seeds of each broomrape isolate that was recovered, as described by Pancenko with minor modification (2). Briefly, two parts of field soil and one part of vermiculite were mixed together and used as potting mix. The mix was inoculated with broomrape seeds at 10 mg of seeds per 100 g of potting mix. The inoculated mix was placed in a 7-cm (diameter) × 11-cm (height) plastic pot to fill two-thirds of the pot volume. Three sunflower seeds were placed on the surface of the mix at an even distance from each other and covered with additional mix. The pots were kept in a greenhouse under a 16-h photoperiod at 10,000 lux of illumination intensity, temperature of 20–25°C, and 40% relative humidity. Forty days after incubation, sunflower seedlings were taken out from the pot and the roots washed with tap water. The number of tubercles was recorded on the root of each differential host. Race types were determined based on the reaction (tubercule formation on roots) of all the standard differential hosts to the test isolate. The results showed that races A, D, E, and G of O. cumana were present among the isolates. Race G was found in Wuqianqi, Xixiaozhao, and Linhe in the western part of Inner Mongolia. Race E was found only in Shihezi of Xinjiang. Race D was found in Aohanqi and Keyouqianqi (eastern part of Inner Mongolia); Xinyuan, Tekesi, Beitun, and Urumqi (northern part of Xinjiang); and Tongyu (northern part of Jilin). Race A was found in Mizhi, Shilou, and Hunyuan of Shanxi province and Xuanhua in Hebei province. Additionally, race A was also found in Tuzuoqi, the middle region of Inner Mongolia. Thus, races A, D, E, and G were the main race types of O. cumana in China. Race D was the predominant race type and had the widest distribution. Race G was the highest level race type in this study but was mainly limited to the western part of Inner Mongolia. This is the first report of race composition and distribution of sunflower broomrape (O. cumana) in China.
References: (1) Y. Kaya et al. Helia 40:211, 2004. (2) A. N. Pancenko, Zbirnik VNIIMK. Page 107, 1973. (3) C. Parker. Page 17 in: Proc. 3rd Int. Workshop on Orobanche and Related Striga Research, 1994. (4) P. Shindrova et al. Helia 35:87, 2012.