Sotirios Konstantinou and
Thomas Veloukas, Laboratory of Plant Pathology, School of Agriculture, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (AUTH), POB 269, Thessaloniki, 511 24, Greece;
Michaela Leroch, Plant Pathology Group, Department of Biology, University of Kaiserslautern, Kaiserslautern, Germany;
George Menexes, Laboratory of Agronomy, School of Agriculture, AUTH;
Matthias Hahn, Plant Pathology Group, Department of Biology, University of Kaiserslautern; and
George Karaoglanidis, Laboratory of Plant Pathology, School of Agriculture, AUTH
Botrytis cinerea is a pathogen with high genetic variability that has also shown high risk for fungicide resistance development. In total, 1,169 isolates obtained from strawberry (n = 297) and tomato (n = 872) in five geographic regions of Greece were tested for their sensitivity to several botryticides. A high frequency of isolates with multiple resistance to carbendazim, cyprodinil, pyraclostrobin, and boscalid was found in isolates from strawberry. In the isolates from tomato, the predominant phenotype was that of dual resistance to carbendazim and cyprodinil in the Crete island, of single resistance to carbendazim in the region of Preveza, and of sensitive isolates in the region of Kyparissia. None of the tested isolates was found to be fludioxonil resistant. High frequencies of boscalid-resistant phenotypes were observed in the strawberry isolates, while boscalid-resistance frequency in the tomato isolates was lower. H272R was the predominant sdhB mutation, associated with resistance to boscalid, in all the sampled isolates, while other sdhB mutations were found at low frequencies. B. cinerea group S, identified by the presence of a 21-bp insertion in the transcription factor mrr1 gene, was predominant within the tomato isolates obtained from all three sampled regions, with frequencies ranging from 62 to 75% of the isolates; whereas, within strawberry isolates, B. cinerea was predominant, with frequencies of 75 to 95%. Correlations of isolate genotype and fungicide resistance profile showed that B. cinerea sensu stricto isolates were more prone to the development of resistance to boscalid compared with the Botrytis group S isolates, which may explain the observed predominance of B. cinerea sensu stricto in strawberry fields.