Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Oregon State University, Corvallis 97331
Washington State University, 24106 N. Bunn Rd., IAREC, Prosser 99350
Department of Plant, Soil, and Entomological Sciences, Parma Research and Extension Center, Parma, ID 83660
Oregon Department of Agriculture, Salem 97301
USDA-ARS-HCRL, Corvallis, OR 97331
Hop powdery mildew (HPM) was first observed in commercial hop (Humulus lupulus L.) fields in Washington State on 10 June 1997 near Toppenish in the Yakima Valley. The disease appeared throughout the valley in 1997; by mid-July, scattered fields throughout the Yakima growing area reported HPM. Approximately 2,000 of 30,000 acres in production were not harvested in 1997 due to HPM. The pathogen apparently perennated in buds, and flagshoots originating from infected buds were observed during March and April 1998 at various locations throughout the Yakima Valley. During the 1999 growing season, the majority of hop acreage in Washington State was affected, and most fields planted to susceptible cultivars contained at least one infected plant. HPM was initially discovered in southern Idaho during early July 1998, in two adjacent fields of hops in Canyon County. HPM was found ≈644 km (400 miles) north in another hop-growing region of Idaho, Boundary County, during mid-July 1998. HPM eventually was observed in more than 20 Idaho hop fields. The initial discovery of HPM in Oregon's Willamette Valley was made during late-July 1998, in two neighboring hop fields. By the end of the growing season, HPM was observed in nine commercial fields representing 3.7% of the hop production acreage in Oregon. Affected cultivars include Brewer's Gold, Chinook, Cluster, Columbus/Tomahawk, Eroica, Fuggle, Galena, Golding, Liberty, Olympic, Perle, Symphony, Tettnanger, Willamette, and Zeus. Infected basal leaves of bines had small whitish circular spots on adaxial surfaces. In some cases, blisters preceded direct observation of the fungus. Cones also were infected, appearing stunted and malformed. The pathogen usually was visible on infected cones but sometimes was found only under overlapping bracts. Cleistothecia have not been observed in the field to date. Conidia were transferred to leaf disks (12 mm diameter) excised from greenhouse-grown cv. Galena hop plants. Inoculated leaf disks were incubated on moistened filter paper in glass petri dishes at 20°C with illumination provided for a 12 h day by two cool-white fluorescent bulbs. HPM lesions with chains of unicellular, barrel-shaped conidia (30 to 36 × 15 to 18 μm) were visible within 7 days. The causal agent was identified as Sphaerotheca macularis (Wallr.:Fr.) Lind (synonym S. humuli (DC.) Burrill) on the basis of conidial shape and size as well as host range (1).
Reference: (1) D. J. Royle. 1978. Powdery mildew of the hop. Pages 381--409 in: The Powdery Mildews. D. M. Spencer, ed. Academic Press, New York.