Previous View
APSnet Home
Phytopathology Home


Biology of Four Viruses Affecting Cicer arietinum in Iran. Walter J. Kaiser, Research Plant Pathologist, Regional Pulse Improvement Project, Crops Research Division, ARS, USDA, c/o American Embassy, Tehran, Iran; Dariush Danesh, Plant Pathologist, Pulse Project, Tehran, Iran, Present address of junior author: Department of Plant Pathology, University of California, Berkeley 94720. Phytopathology 61:372-375. Accepted for publication 9 November 1970. DOI: 10.1094/Phyto-61-372.

The biology of alfalfa mosaic (AMV), bean yellow mosaic (BYMV), cucumber mosaic (CMV), and pea leaf roll (PLRV) viruses, all infectious to chickpea (Cicer arietinum), was studied under field conditions in pulse-growing regions of Iran. Annual and perennial forage legumes, weeds, and cultivated crops were found to be important reservoir and overwintering hosts of viruses affecting chickpeas. Three aphid species, Aphis craccivora, Acyrthosiphon pisum, and Acyrthosiphon sesbaniae, were primarily responsible for the spread of viruses from alternate hosts into and, subsequently, within chickpea plantings. All viruses except PLRV were transmitted by aphids in a stylet-borne manner, but aphid vectors transmitted PLRV in a circulative manner. Natural spread and incidence of viruses in chickpea plantings varied from 3 to 13%, and were usually related to the proximity of chickpeas to virus-infected reservoir hosts. Virus infection reduced yields and increased plant mortality. Although there were differences among viruses and isolates, yield reductions (92-100%) and mortality (14-99%) were greatest in field inoculation studies when plants were infected before flowering. PLRV caused the largest yield reductions and the highest plant mortality. Chickpea viruses were not seed-borne in this host; however, seeds from diseased plants were often discolored, deformed, and shrivelled, and the germination was adversely affected.

Additional keywords: food legume, aphid transmission.