First, second, third, and seventh authors: University of Florida, Gulf Coast Research and Education Center, 5007 60th Street E., Bradenton 34203; fourth author: University of Florida, Plant Pathology Department, Gainesville 32611; fifth author: University of Florida, Everglades Research and Education Center, Belle Glade 33430; and sixth author: Plant Pathology Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center, Giza, Egypt
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Accepted for publication 8 October 1997.
Until recently, tomato race 1 (T1) of Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria was the only race causing bacterial spot of tomato in Florida. In 1991, tomato race 3 (T3) was first identified in 3 of 13 tomato production fields surveyed. By 1994, T3 was observed in 21 of 28 fields and was the only race identified in 14 fields. In field studies, tomato genotypes with resistance to either T1 or T3 or susceptibility to both were co-inoculated with strains of both races. Lesions on 10 plants in each of three replications for each genotype were sampled three times during the experiment; bacterial isolations were made from each lesion, and tomato race identifications were made for each strain. At the third sampling date, T3 was isolated from 97% of the lesions on the susceptible genotype Walter and the T1-resistant genotype Hawaii 7998, while T3 was isolated from 23% of the lesions and T1 from the remaining 77% on the T3-resistant genotypes PI 128216 and PI 126932. In surface population studies done in growth rooms, suspensions of T1 and T3 were applied alone and in combination to the leaf surfaces of susceptible and resistant genotypes. T1 populations were reduced more than 10-fold when applied in combination with T3, compared with populations that developed when T1 was applied alone. T3 populations were not affected when applied in combination with a T1 strain. In greenhouse studies with the T3-resistant genotype Hawaii 7981, disease was significantly reduced in plants inoculated with T3 in combination with T1, compared with plants inoculated with T1 alone. These results clearly demonstrate the competitive nature of T3 in the presence of T1 and help explain the emergence of T3 as a prevalent race in Florida.
© 1998 The American Phytopathological Society