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Toxicity of Glucosinolate Degradation Products from Brassica napus Seed Meal Toward Aphanomyces euteiches f. sp. pisi

January 1997 , Volume 87 , Number  1
Pages  77 - 82

U. Smolinska , M. J. Morra , G. R. Knudsen , and P. D. Brown

Department of Plant, Soil, and Entomological Sciences, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID 83844-2339

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Accepted for publication 4 October 1996.

Brassica tissues are potentially useful in the control of Aphanomyces root rot of peas (Pisum sativum), but identity of the responsible compounds and specific impacts of those compounds on the pathogen's infection potential remain uncertain. Brassica napus seed meals and water extracts from these meals were used to determine the effect of glucosinolate hydrolysis products on Aphanomyces euteiches f. sp. pisi. B. napus meal (‘Dwarf Essex’) containing glucosinolates and intact myrosinase, the enzyme responsible for glucosinolate hydrolysis, completely inhibited infection by A. euteiches f. sp. pisi oospores. Water extracts from this meal, likewise, severely inhibited infection by oospores, as well as mycelial growth. Extracts from autoclaved ‘Dwarf Essex’ meal, in which myrosinase was denatured, and a low glucosinolate B. napus variety (‘Stonewall’) produced little disease reduction and had less impact on mycelial growth. Gas chromatographic analysis of Brassica tissues and water extracts confirmed that glucosinolates remained in autoclaved ‘Dwarf Essex’ meal and that ‘Stonewall’ meal contained low glucosinolate concentrations. 5-Vinyloxazolidine-2-thione was identified by mass spectrometry as a dominant glucosinolate hydrolysis product in aqueous extracts of the inhibitory meal. Bioassays conducted with aqueous solutions of this compound reduced mycelial growth, but not to the extent of those from intact ‘Dwarf Essex’ meal. Water-soluble compounds produced from the hydrolysis of glucosinolates in B. napus tissues reduced A. euteiches oospore infection and inhibited mycelial growth, thus, demonstrating potential utility of Brassica species in the control of A. euteiches.

Additional keywords: allelochemicals, rapeseed meal.

© 1997 The American Phytopathological Society