VIEW ARTICLE | DOI: 10.1094/MPMI-2-262
Localization of Ice Nucleation Activity and the iceC Gene Product in Pseudomonas syringae and Escherichia coli. S. E. Lindow. Department of Plant Pathology, University of California, Berkeley 94720 U.S.A.
. E. Lahue, A. G. Govindarajan, N. J. Panopoulos, and D. Gies. Department of Plant Pathology, University of California, Berkeley 94720 U.S.A.
. MPMI 2:262-272. Accepted 9 May 1989. This article is in the public domain and not copyrightable. It may be freely reprinted with customary crediting of the source. The American Phytopathological society, 1989..
Ice nucleation activity and the iceC gene product were quantified in different subcellular fractions of the Pseudomonas syringae source strain and in Escherichia coli containing the cloned iceC gene to determine the activity of this protein in different subcellular locations. Ice nuclei were nearly completely retained during isolation of cell envelopes but exhibited a decrease in the temperature at which they were expressed. Ice nucleation activity was found in Triton X-100 insoluble membrane fragments as well as in slowly sedimenting and high-density membrane fragments. Nearly all ice nucleation activity was associated with the outer membrane because the partitioning of 3-ketodeoxyoctonate (a lipopolysaccharide component) and ice nuclei in cell fractions were similar to and opposite that of NADH oxidase (a cytoplasmic membrane component). The iceC gene product had an apparent mass of 150,000 Da based on migration in SDS-polyacrylamide gels. This protein was not found in soluble cell components. Nearly all of the iceC gene product, which occurred in low abundance, was associated with the outer membrane of both P. syringae and E. coli. Therefore, the iceC gene product is located at and is maximally active in or on the outer membrane of cells of the source strain and heterologous strains.