VIEW ARTICLE | DOI: 10.1094/MPMI-7-0498
Rhizobium Inoculation and Physical Wounding Result in the Rapid Induction of the Same Chalcone Synthase Copy in Trifolium subterraneum. Charles G. R. Lawson. Center for Genetic Research (Plant Microbe Interactions Group), Research School of Biological Sciences, Institute of Advanced Studies, Australian National University, P.O. Box 475, Canberra City, ACT, 2601. Michael A. Djordjevic, Jeremy J. Weinman, and Barry G. Rolfe.
Center for Genetic Research (Plant Microbe Interactions Group), Research School of Biological Sciences, Institute of Advanced Studies, Australian National University, P.O. Box 475, Canberra City, ACT, 2601. MPMI 7:498-507. Accepted 15 April 1994. Copyright 1994 The American Phytopathological Society.
Additional Keywords: defense, flavonoids, nodulation, symbiosis.
The gene or genes encoding chalcone synthase (CHS) in the legume Trifolium subterraneum (subterranean clover) were induced within 6 hr after inoculation with Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii strain ANU843. No induction was found in uninoculated controls or plants inoculated with either the nodulation-deficient R. I. bv. trifolii strain ANU845 (pSym-) or R. meliloti strain 1021, which is capable of nodulating alfalfa but not clover. Morphological examination of the interaction between the legume and bacteria in this system showed that root hair distortion (a marker of the early events in the interaction) was apparent within 10 hr after inoculation. This indicated that CHS induction could occur before any detectable sign of rhizobial penetration of root hairs. The addition of a crude preparation of R. I. bv. trifolii lipooligosaccharide signals (Nod metabolites) to the plant growth medium had no effect on the expression of CHS over 36 hr, although root hair distortion was apparent over this time. These treatments were then contrasted with physical wounding. Wounding the plants led to a rapid induction of CHS, occurring within 2 hr. Sequence analysis of cloned CHS cDNA from pools sampled after Rhizobium inoculation or wounding treatments showed the gene designated CHS5 was the major CHS species in both treatments. Conserved sequences were found in promoters of CHS5 and soybean Gmchs7, a gene which has overlapping expression patterns. These findings support the view that the induction of the phenylpropanoid pathway is involved in the very early events of the Rhizobium infection of legumes.