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Subcellular Dynamics and Role of Arabidopsis β-1,3-Glucanases in Cell-to-Cell Movement of Tobamoviruses

September 2013 , Volume 26 , Number  9
Pages  1,016 - 1,030

Raul Zavaliev,1 Amit Levy,1 Abed Gera,2 and Bernard L. Epel1

1Department of Molecular Biology and Ecology of Plants, George S. Wise Faculty of Life Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978, Israel; 2Department of Plant Pathology, Agricultural Research Organization, The Volcani Center, Bet Dagan 50250, Israel


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Accepted 1 May 2013.

β-1,3-Glucanases (BG) have been implicated in enhancing virus spread by degrading callose at plasmodesmata (Pd). Here, we investigate the role of Arabidopsis BG in tobamovirus spread. During Turnip vein clearing virus infection, the transcription of two pathogenesis-related (PR)-BG AtBG2 and AtBG3 increased but that of Pd-associated BG AtBG_pap did not change. In transgenic plants, AtBG2 was retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) network and was not secreted. As a stress response mediated by salicylic acid, AtBG2 was secreted and appeared as a free extracellular protein localized in the entire apoplast but did not accumulate at Pd sites. At the leading edge of Tobacco mosaic virus spread, AtBG2 co-localized with the viral movement protein in the ER-derived bodies, similarly to other ER proteins, but was not secreted to the cell wall. In atbg2 mutants, callose levels at Pd and virus spread were unaffected. Likewise, AtBG2 overexpression had no effect on virus spread. However, in atbg_pap mutants, callose at Pd was increased and virus spread was reduced. Our results demonstrate that the constitutive Pd-associated BG but not the stress-regulated extracellular PR-BG are directly involved in regulation of callose at Pd and cell-to-cell transport in Arabidopsis, including the spread of viruses.



© 2013 The American Phytopathological Society