1Department of Plant Microbe Interaction, Max Planck Institute for Plant Breeding Research, Carl-von-Linné-Weg 10, 50829 Cologne, Germany; 2Department of Molecular Ecology, Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology, Hans-Knöll-Straße 8, 07745 Jena, Germany; 3Department of Plant Cell Biology, University of Göttingen, Julia-Lermontowa-Weg 3, 37077 Göttingen, Germany; 4Leibnitz Institute of Plant Biochemistry, Weinberg 3, 06120 Halle (Saale), Germany
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Accepted 29 March 2013.
Simultaneous mutation of two WRKY-type transcription factors, WRKY18 and WRKY40, renders otherwise susceptible wild-type Arabidopsis plants resistant towards the biotrophic powdery mildew fungus Golovinomyces orontii. Resistance in wrky18 wrky40 double mutant plants is accompanied by massive transcriptional reprogramming, imbalance in salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) signaling, altered ENHANCED DISEASE SUSCEPTIBILITY1 (EDS1) expression, and accumulation of the phytoalexin camalexin. Genetic analyses identified SA biosynthesis and EDS1 signaling as well as biosynthesis of the indole-glucosinolate 4MI3G as essential components required for loss-of-WRKY18 WRKY40–mediated resistance towards G. orontii. The analysis of wrky18 wrky40 pad3 mutant plants impaired in camalexin biosynthesis revealed an uncoupling of pre- from postinvasive resistance against G. orontii. Comprehensive infection studies demonstrated the specificity of wrky18 wrky40–mediated G. orontii resistance. Interestingly, WRKY18 and WRKY40 act as positive regulators in effector-triggered immunity, as the wrky18 wrky40 double mutant was found to be strongly susceptible towards the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae DC3000 expressing the effector AvrRPS4 but not against other tested Pseudomonas strains. We hypothesize that G. orontii depends on the function of WRKY18 and WRKY40 to successfully infect Arabidopsis wild-type plants while, in the interaction with P. syringae AvrRPS4, they are required to mediate effector-triggered immunity.
© 2013 The American Phytopathological Society