Cell and Molecular Sciences, The James Hutton Institute, Dundee, DD2 5DA U.K.
In recent years, immense progress has been made toward understanding the functions of effectors from a range of plant pathogens, such as oomycetes, fungi, bacteria, and nematodes. Like plant pathogens, aphids form close associations with host plants, featuring signal exchange between the two organisms. While feeding and probing, aphids deliver effector proteins mixed with saliva directly into the host–stylet interface. With the increasing availability of aphid genome and transcriptome sequence data, aphid effector biology is emerging as a new and exciting area of research. In this review, we provide an overview of recent advances in the aphid effector biology field and highlight some of the current questions.