Pyniarlang L. Nongbri,1
Joy Michal Johnson,1
Barbara Ann Halkier,3 and
1Institute of General Botany and Plant Physiology, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Dornburger Str. 159, 07743 Jena, Germany; 2Lehrstuhl für Genetik, Technische Universität München, Emil-Ramann-Str.8, 85350 Freising, Germany; 3VKR Research Centre Pro-Active Plants, Department of Plant Biology and Biotechnology, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Thorvaldsensvej 40, 1871 Frederiksberg C, Denmark
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Accepted 17 May 2012.
The growth-promoting and root-colonizing endophyte Piriformospora indica induces camalexin and the expression of CYP79B2, CYP79B3, CYP71A13, PAD3, and WRKY33 required for the synthesis of indole-3-acetaldoxime (IAOx)-derived compounds in the roots of Arabidopsis seedlings. Upregulation of the mRNA levels by P. indica requires cytoplasmic calcium elevation and mitogen-activated protein kinase 3 but not root-hair-deficient 2, radical oxygen production, or the 3-phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1/oxidative signal-inducible 1 pathway. Because P. indica–mediated growth promotion is impaired in cyp79B2 cyp79B3 seedlings, while pad3 seedlings—which do not accumulate camalexin—still respond to the fungus, IAOx-derived compounds other than camalexin (e.g., indole glucosinolates) are required during early phases of the beneficial interaction. The roots of cyp79B2 cyp79B3 seedlings are more colonized than wild-type roots, and upregulation of the defense genes pathogenesis-related (PR)-1, PR-3, PDF1.2, phenylalanine ammonia lyase, and germin indicates that the mutant responds to the lack of IAOx-derived compounds by activating other defense processes. After 6 weeks on soil, defense genes are no longer upregulated in wild-type, cyp79B2 cyp79B3, and pad3 roots. This results in uncontrolled fungal growth in the mutant roots and reduced performance of the mutants. We propose that a long-term harmony between the two symbionts requires restriction of root colonization by IAOx-derived compounds.
© 2012 The American Phytopathological Society