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Necrosis-Inducing Proteins of Rhynchosporium commune, Effectors in Quantitative Disease Resistance

October 2012 , Volume 25 , Number  10
Pages  1,314 - 1,325

S. Kirsten,1 A. Navarro-Quezada,1 D. Penselin,1 C. Wenzel,1 A. Matern,1 A. Leitner,1 T. Baum,2 U. Seiffert,2 and W. Knogge1

1Leibniz Institute of Plant Biochemistry, Department of Stress and Developmental Biology, Weinberg 3, D-06120 Halle, Germany; 2Fraunhofer Institute for Factory Operation and Automation (IFF), Biosystems Engineering, Sandtorstraße 22, D-39106 Magdeburg, Germany

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Accepted 11 June 2012.

The barley pathogen Rhynchosporium commune secretes necrosis-inducing proteins NIP1, NIP2, and NIP3. Expression analysis revealed that NIP1 transcripts appear to be present in fungal spores already, whereas NIP2 and NIP3 are synthesized after inoculation of host plants. To assess the contribution of the three effector proteins to disease development, deletion mutants were generated. The development of these fungal mutants on four barley cultivars was quantified in comparison with that of the parent wild-type strain and with two fungal strains failing to secrete an “active” NIP1 avirulence protein, using quantitative polymerase chain reaction as well as microscopic imaging after fungal green fluorescent protein tagging. The impact of the three deletions varied quantitatively depending on the host genotype, suggesting that the activities of the fungal effectors add up to produce stronger growth patterns and symptom development. Alternatively, recognition events of differing intensities may be converted into defense gene expression in a quantitative manner.

© 2012 The American Phytopathological Society