Brigitte Mauch-Mani,2 and
1Department of Biological Chemistry, Rothamsted Research, Harpenden AL5 2JQ U.K.; 2Institute of Botany, University of Neuchâtel, Neuchâtel, CH-2009 Switzerland; 3Plant Physiology Section, CAMN Department, University of Jaume I, Castellón, 12071 Spain
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Accepted 8 October 2010.
Callose deposition in Arabidopsis has emerged as a popular model system to quantify activity of plant immunity. However, there has been a noticeable rise in contradicting reports about the regulation of pathogen-induced callose. To address this controversy, we have examined the robustness of callose deposition under different growth conditions and in response to two different pathogen-associated molecular patterns, the flagellin epitope Flg22 and the polysaccharide chitosan. Based on a commonly used hydroponic culture system, we found that variations in growth conditions have a major impact on the plant's overall capacity to deposit callose. This environmental variability correlated with levels of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production. Depending on the growth conditions, pretreatment with abscissic acid stimulated or repressed callose deposition. Despite a similar effect of growth conditions on Flg22- and chitosan-induced callose, both responses showed differences in timing, tissue responsiveness, and colocalization with H2O2. Furthermore, mutant analysis revealed that Flg22- and chitosan-induced callose differ in the requirement for the NADPH oxidase RBOHD, the glucosinolate regulatory enzymes VTC1 and PEN2, and the callose synthase PMR4. Our study demonstrates that callose is a multifaceted defense response that is controlled by distinct signaling pathways, depending on the environmental conditions and the challenging pathogen-associated molecular pattern.
© 2011 The American Phytopathological Society