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Barley Leaf Transcriptome and Metabolite Analysis Reveals New Aspects of Compatibility and Piriformospora indica–Mediated Systemic Induced Resistance to Powdery Mildew

December 2011 , Volume 24 , Number  12
Pages  1,427 - 1,439

Alexandra Molitor,1 Doreen Zajic,2 Lars M. Voll,2 Jörn Pons-Kühnemann,3 Birgit Samans,3 Karl-Heinz Kogel,1 and Frank Waller1

1Institute of Phytopathology and Applied Zoology, Research Center for BioSystems, Land Use and Nutrition, Justus Liebig University, Heinrich-Buff-Ring 26-32, D-35392 Giessen, Germany; 2Friedrich Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Department of Biochemistry, Staudtstrasse 5, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany; 3Institute of Biometry and Population Genetics, Research Center for BioSystems, Land Use and Nutrition, Justus Liebig University

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Accepted 27 July 2011.

Colonization of barley roots with the basidiomycete fungus Piriformospora indica (Sebacinales) induces systemic resistance against the biotrophic leaf pathogen Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei (B. graminis). To identify genes involved in this mycorrhiza-induced systemic resistance, we compared the leaf transcriptome of P. indica-colonized and noncolonized barley plants 12, 24, and 96 h after challenge with a virulent race of B. graminis. The leaf pathogen induced specific gene sets (e.g., LRR receptor kinases and WRKY transcription factors) at 12 h postinoculation (hpi) (prepenetration phase) and vesicle-localized gene products 24 hpi (haustorium establishment). Metabolic analysis revealed a progressing shift of steady state contents of the intermediates glucose-1-phosphate, uridinediphosphate-glucose, and phosphoenolpyruvate 24 and 96 hpi, indicating that B. graminis shifts central carbohydrate metabolism in favor of sucrose biosynthesis. Both B. graminis and P. indica increased glutamine and alanine contents, whereas substrates for starch and nitrogen assimilation (adenosinediphosphate- glucose and oxoglutarate) decreased. In plants that were more B. graminis resistant due to P. indica root colonization, 22 transcripts, including those of pathogenesis-related genes and genes encoding heat-shock proteins, were differentially expressed ≥twofold in leaves after B. graminis inoculation compared with non-mycorrhized plants. Detailed expression analysis revealed a faster induction after B. graminis inoculation between 8 and 16 hpi, suggesting that priming of these genes is an important mechanism of P. indica-induced systemic disease resistance.

© 2011 The American Phytopathological Society