Department of Plant Biology and the Genome Center, College of Biological Sciences, University of California, Davis 95616, U.S.A.
Plant innate immunity is mediated by cell membrane and intracellular immune receptors that function in distinct and overlapping cell-signaling pathways to activate defense responses. It is becoming increasingly evident that immune receptors rely on components from multiple organelles for the generation of appropriate defense responses. This review analyzes the defense-related functions of the chloroplast, nucleus, and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) during plant innate immunity. It details the role of the chloroplasts in synthesizing defense-specific second messengers and discusses the retrograde signal transduction pathways that exist between the chloroplast and nucleus. Because the activities of immune modulators are regulated, in part, by their subcellular localization, the review places special emphasis on the dynamics and nuclear–cytoplasmic transport of immune receptors and regulators and highlights the importance of this process in generating orderly events during an innate immune response. The review also covers the recently discovered contributions of the ER quality-control pathways in ensuring the signaling competency of cell surface immune receptors or immune regulators.