Janice de Almeida-Engler,2 and
Florian M. W. Grundler1
1Institute of Plant Protection, Department of Applied Plant Sciences and Plant Biotechnology, BOKU—University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna, Peter Jordan-Straβe 82, A-1190 Vienna; 2INRA-UNSA-CNRS, UMR1064-6192, Interactions Biotiques et Santé Végétale, 400 route des Chappes, F-06903 Sophia Antipolis, France
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Accepted 22 December 2009.
Infective second-stage juveniles of the obligate plant-parasitic root-knot and cyst nematodes invade plant roots to induce specialized feeding structures. Here, we present data on the distribution of plasmodesmata in cell walls of syncytia and giant cells induced by cyst and root-knot nematodes. An Arabidopsis and a tobacco line were used, containing viral movement proteins fused to green fluorescent protein as a localization marker for plasmodesmata. Plasmodesmata were detected in walls between giant cells but also in walls toward neighboring cells. In syncytia, plasmodesmata were mainly detected at later stages. In young syncytia, few plasmodesmata were observed and a specific temporal callose deposition along plasmodesmata indicated impaired symplasmic exchange. In order to study the relevance of callose deposition for successful cyst nematode development in Arabidopsis, two mutant lines inhibited in callose synthesis and degradation, respectively, were used in nematode infection assays. Histological analyses showed that syncytia were smaller when callose degradation was reduced, indicating a significant importance of this process to cyst nematode development.
© 2010 The American Phytopathological Society