Department of Plant Pathology and Plant-Microbe Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, U.S.A.
The type III secretion system (T3SS) of Pseudomonas syringae translocates into plant cells multiple effectors that suppress pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity (PTI). P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000 no longer delivers the T3SS translocation reporter AvrPto-Cya in Nicotiana benthamiana leaf tissue in which PTI was induced by prior inoculation with P. fluorescens(pLN18). Cosmid pLN18 expresses the T3SS system of P. syringae pv. syringae 61 but lacks the hopA1Psy61 effector gene. P. fluorescens(pLN18) expressing HrpHPtoDC3000 or HopP1PtoDC3000, two T3SS-associated putative lytic transglycosylases, suppresses PTI, based on multiple assays involving DC3000 challenge inoculum (AvrPto-Cya translocation, hypersensitive response elicitation, and colony development in planta) or on plant responses (vascular dye uptake or callose deposition). Analysis of additional mutations in pHIR11 derivatives revealed that the pLN18-encoded T3SS elicits a higher level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) than does P. fluorescens without a T3SS, that enhanced ROS production is dependent on the HrpK1 translocator, and that HopA1Psy61 suppresses ROS elicitation attributable to both the P. fluorescens PAMPs and the presence of a functional T3SS.