Bo Min Kim,1
Tsuyoshi Inukai,1 and
1Graduate School of Agriculture, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-8589, Japan; 2Faculty of Agriculture, Utsunomiya University, Mine-machi 350, Utsunomiya 321-8505, Japan
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Accepted 22 September 2009.
Strains TuR1 and TuC of Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) induce different symptoms on Arabidopsis thaliana ecotype Landsberg erecta (Ler); plants infected with TuR1 develop systemic necrosis, while TuC causes mosaics. We previously found that the Ler systemic necrosis was controlled by a single dominant gene, TuNI (TuMV necrosis inducer), and that it was actually a form of host defense response leading to a hypersensitive reaction (HR)-like cell death. To identify the viral factor interacting with TuNI, the domain swapping between the genomic clones of TuR1 and TuC was carried out, and we identified the TuMV symptom determinant interacting with TuNI as the P3 gene. Moreover, it was found that the central 0.5-kb domain of P3, including three different amino acids between the two isolates, was responsible for the systemic HR. To verify that the P3 gene can alone induce necrosis, we analyzed the constitutive P3 expression in Ler transgenic plants and the transient P3 expression in Ler protoplasts. These results indicated that P3 alone caused HR-like cell death. In this study, we successfully demonstrated that the systemic necrosis by TuMV in Arabidopsis was determined by the gene-for-gene interaction between TuNI and P3 using the protoplast system for direct verification.
© 2010 The American Phytopathological Society