Department of Plant Pathology, University of Kentucky, Lexington 40546, U.S.A.
RAR1, SGT1, and HSP90 are important components of effector-triggered immunity (ETI) in diverse plants, where RAR1 and SGT1 are thought to serve as HSP90 co-chaperones. We show that ETI in soybean requires RAR1 and SGT1 but not HSP90. Rsv1-mediated extreme resistance to Soybean mosaic virus (SMV) and Rpg-1b-mediated resistance to Pseudomonas syringae were compromised in plants silenced for GmRAR1 and GmSGT1-2 but not GmHSP90. This suggests that RAR1- or SGT1-dependant signaling is not always associated with a dependence on HSP90. Unlike in Arabidopsis, SGT1 in soybean also mediates ETI against the bacterial pathogen P. syringae. Similar to Arabidopsis, soybean RAR1 and SGT1 proteins interact with each other and two related HSP90 proteins. Plants silenced for GmHSP90 genes or GmRAR1 exhibited altered morphology, suggesting that these proteins also contribute to developmental processes. Silencing GmRAR1 and GmSGT1-2 impaired resistance to virulent bacteria and systemic acquired resistance (SAR) in soybean as well. Because the Arabidopsis rar1 mutant also showed a defect in SAR, we conclude that RAR1 and SGT1 serve as a point of convergence for basal resistance, ETI, and SAR. We demonstrate that, although soybean defense signaling pathways recruit structurally conserved components, they have distinct requirements for specific proteins.