Gregory Guernec,3 and
1INRA, Agrocampus Rennes-Université Rennes 1, UMR1099 BiO3P ‘Biologie des Organismes et des Populations appliquée à la Protection des Plantes’, 35653 Le Rheu, France; 2INRA, UMR 1136 INRA-Nancy Université ‘Interactions Arbres/Microorganismes’, 54280 Champenoux, France; 3INRA Scribe, IFR140, Campus de Beaulieu, 35042 Rennes, France
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Accepted 6 July 2009.
Traits contributing to the competence of biocontrol bacteria to colonize plant roots are often induced in the rhizosphere in response to plant components. These interactions have been studied using the two partners in gnotobiotic systems. However, in nature, beneficial or pathogenic fungi often colonize roots. Influence of these plant--fungus interactions on bacterial behavior remains to be investigated. Here, we have examined the influence of colonization of wheat roots by the take-all fungus Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici on gene expression of the biocontrol bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf29Arp. Bacteria were inoculated onto healthy, early G. graminis var. tritici-colonized and necrotic roots and transcriptomes were compared by shotgun DNA microarray. Pf29Arp decreased disease severity when inoculated before the onset of necrosis. Necrotic roots exerted a broader effect on gene expression compared with early G. graminis var. tritici-colonized and healthy roots. A gene encoding a putative type VI secretion system effector was only induced in necrotic conditions. A common pool of Pf29Arp genes differentially expressed on G. graminis var. tritici-colonized roots was related to carbon metabolism and oxidative stress, with a highest fold-change with necrosis. Overall, the data showed that the association of the pathogenic fungus with the roots strongly altered Pf29Arp adaptation with differences between early and late G. graminis var. tritici infection steps.
© 2009 The American Phytopathological Society