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Adaptation of Soybean mosaic virus Avirulent Chimeras Containing P3 Sequences from Virulent Strains to Rsv1-Genotype Soybeans Is Mediated by Mutations in HC-Pro

July 2008 , Volume 21 , Number  7
Pages  937 - 946

M. R. Hajimorad,1 A. L. Eggenberger,2 and J. H. Hill2

1Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology, the University of Tennessee, Knoxville 37996, U.S.A.; 2Department of Plant Pathology, Iowa State University, Ames 50011, U.S.A.

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Accepted 1 April 2008.

In Rsv1-genotype soybean, Soybean mosaic virus (SMV)-N (an avirulent isolate of strain G2) elicits extreme resistance (ER) whereas strain SMV-G7 provokes a lethal systemic hypersensitive response (LSHR). SMV-G7d, an experimentally evolved variant of SMV-G7, induces systemic mosaic. Thus, for Rsv1-genotype soybean, SMV-N is avirulent whereas SMV-G7 and SMV-G7d are both virulent. Exploiting these differential interactions, we recently mapped the elicitor functions of SMV provoking Rsv1-mediated ER and LSHR to the N-terminal 271 amino acids of P3 from SMV-N and SMV-G7, respectively. The phenotype of both SMV-G7 and SMV-G7d were rendered avirulent on Rsv1-genotype soybean when the part of the genome encoding the N-terminus or the entire P3 cistron was replaced with that from SMV-N; however, reciprocal exchanges did not confer virulence to SMV-N-derived P3 chimeras. Here, we describe virulent SMV-N-derived P3 chimeras containing the full-length or the N-terminal P3 from SMV-G7 or SMV-G7d, with or without additional mutations in P3, that were selected on Rsv1-genotype soybean by sequential transfers on rsv1 and Rsv1-genotype soybean. Sequence analyses of the P3 and helper-component proteinase (HC-Pro) cistrons of progeny recovered from Rsv1-genotype soybean consistently revealed the presence of mutations in HC-Pro. Interestingly, the precise mutations in HC-Pro required for the adaptation varied among the chimeras. No mutation was detected in the HC-Pro of progeny passaged continuously in rsv1-genotype soybean, suggesting that selection is a consequence of pressure imposed by Rsv1. Mutations in HC-Pro alone failed to confer virulence to SMV-N; however, reconstruction of mutations in HC-Pro of the SMV-N-derived P3 chimeras resulted in virulence. Taken together, the data suggest that HC-Pro complementation of P3 is essential for SMV virulence on Rsv1-genotype soybean.

Additional keywords:evolutionary experiments, experimental adaptation, Potyvirus

© 2008 The American Phytopathological Society