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Induction of p-Coumaroyldopamine and Feruloyldopamine, Two Novel Metabolites, in Tomato by the Bacterial Pathogen Pseudomonas syringae

November 2007 , Volume 20 , Number  11
Pages  1,439 - 1,448

Laura Zacarés,1 María Pilar López-Gresa,1 Joaquín Fayos,1 Jaime Primo,2 José María Bellés,1 and Vicente Conejero1

1Instituto de Biología Molecular y Celular de Plantas, and 2Centro de Ecología Química Agrícola, Universidad Politécnica de Valencia-Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia, Spain

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Accepted 5 July 2007.

Inoculation of tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum cv. Rutgers) with Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato led to the production of a hypersensitive-like response in this pathovar of tomato. Accumulation of hydroxycinnamic acid amides (HCAA) of tyramine (p-coumaroyltyramine and feruloyltyramine) and dopamine (p-coumaroyldopamine and feruloyldopamine) was detected after bacterial infection. Two of them, p-coumaroyldopamine and feruloyldopamine, are described for the first time. The accumulation of HCAA was preceded by an increment of hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA:tyramine N-hydroxycinnamoyl transferase (THT) gene expression. HCAA also accumulated in transgenic NahG tomato plants overexpressing a bacterial salicylic hydroxylase. However, treatment of plants with the ethylene biosynthesis inhibitor, aminoethoxyvinilglycine, led to a reduction in the accumulation of THT transcripts and HCAA. Together, the results suggest that pathogen-induced induction of ethylene is essential for HCAA synthesis, whereas salicylic acid is not required for this response. In addition, notable antibacterial and antioxidant activities were found for the new HCAA, thus indicating that they could play a role in the defense of tomato plants against bacterial infection.

© 2007 The American Phytopathological Society