1Department of Agronomy, University of Wisconsin, 1575 Linden Drive, Madison, WI 53706, U.S.A.; 2Department of Plant Pathology, University of California, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616, U.S.A.; 3Surfaces Cellulaires et Signalisation chez les Végétaux, UMR 5546 Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique--Université Paul Sabatier Toulouse III, F-31326 Castanet-Tolosan, France; 4Institute of Genetics, Martin-Luther-University Halle, Weinbergweg 10, 06108 Halle, Germany
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Accepted 8 March 2007.
Many higher plants establish symbiotic relationships with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi that improve their ability to acquire nutrients from the soil. In addition to establishing AM symbiosis, legumes also enter into a nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with bacteria known as rhizobia that results in the formation of root nodules. Several genes involved in the perception and transduction of bacterial symbiotic signals named “Nod factors” have been cloned recently in model legumes through forward genetic approaches. Among them, DMI3(Doesn't Make Infections 3) is a calcium- and calmodulin-dependent kinase required for the establishment of both nodulation and AM symbiosis. We have identified, by a yeast two-hybrid system, a novel protein interacting with DMI3 named IPD3 (Interacting Protein of DMI3). IPD3 is predicted to interact with DMI3 through a C-terminal coiled-coil domain. Chimeric IPD3∷GFP is localized to the nucleus of transformed Medicago truncatula root cells, in which split yellow fluorescent protein assays suggest that IPD3 and DMI3 physically interact in Nicotiana benthamiana. Like DMI3, IPD3 is extremely well conserved among the angiosperms and is absent from Arabidopsis. Despite this high level of conservation, none of the homologous proteins have a demonstrated biological or biochemical function. This work provides the first evidence of the involvement of IPD3 in a nuclear interaction with DMI3.
© 2007 The American Phytopathological Society