Link to home

Suppression of Defense Response in Plants by the avrBs3/pthA Gene Family of Xanthomonas spp.

March 2006 , Volume 19 , Number  3
Pages  342 - 349

Takashi Fujikawa , 1 , 2 Hiromichi Ishihara , 2 , 3 Jan E. Leach , 3 and Shinji Tsuyumu 1

1Faculty of Agriculture, Shizuoka University, Shizuoka, 422-8529, Japan; 2Shizuoka University (Gifu United Graduate School of Agricultural Sciences), Shizuoka, 422-8529, Japan; 3Bioagricultural Sciences and Pest Management, Colorado State University, Fort Collins 80537-1177, U.S.A.

Go to article:
Accepted 25 October 2005.

Effector genes of some plant-pathogenic bacteria, including some members of the avrBs3/pthA effector gene family from Xanthomonas spp., confer not only genotype-specific disease resistance but also pathogen aggressiveness or virulence. In addition, some effector gene products suppress induction of a nonspecific (or general) hypersensitive response (HR). To determine whether the Xanthomonas avrBs3/pthA gene family members apl1, avrXa7, or avrXa10 also confer suppressor activity, we introduced constructs with each effector gene into Pseudomonas fluorescens 55 that expressed the entire hrp cluster from P. syringae pv. syringae in cosmid pHIR11. When inoculated to tobacco ‘Bright Yellow’, P. fluorescens (pHIR11) induces the HR and expression of four tobacco defense response genes: HIN1, RbohB, PAL, and PR1. When P. fluorescens double transformants that contained pHIR11 and constructs with apl1, avrXa7, or avrXa10 were infiltrated into tobacco, the HR and expression of three defense response genes, RbohB, PAL, and PR1, were suppressed. The suppression of the HR and defense gene expression was more efficient in the transformants with the apl1 and avrXa7 than the transformant with avrXa10. Although expression of other defense genes was suppressed by the double transformants, HIN1 expression was the same level as was observed after infiltration with P. fluorescens (pHIR11), suggesting that HIN1 may not be involved directly in HR. Taken together, our data suggest that avrXa7, avrXa10, and apl1, when delivered to plant cells by the P. syringae pv. syringae hrp secretion system, can suppress nonhost HR and associated phenotypes.

© 2006 The American Phytopathological Society