Department of Plant Pathology, 351 Bessey Hall, Iowa State University, Ames 50011, U.S.A.
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Accepted 9 November 2005.
Soybean mosaic virus (SMV) was adapted for transgene expression in soybean and used to examine the function of avirulence genes avrB and avrPto of Pseudomonas syringae pvs. glycinea and tomato, respectively. A cloning site was introduced between the P1 and HC-Pro genes in 35S-driven infectious cDNAs of strains SMV-N and SMV-G7. Insertion of the uidA gene or the green fluorescent protein gene into either modified cDNA and bombardment into primary leaves resulted in systemic expression that reflected the pattern of viral movement into uninoculated leaves. Insertion of avrB blocked symptom development and detectable viral movement in cv. Harosoy, which carries the Rpg1-b resistance gene corresponding to avrB, but not in cvs. Keburi or Hurrelbrink, which lack Rpg1-b. In Keburi and Hurrelbrink, symptoms caused by SMV carrying avrB appeared more quickly and were more severe than those caused by the virus without avrB. Insertion of avrPto enhanced symptoms in Harosoy, Hurrelbrink, and Keburi. This result was unexpected because avrPto was reported to confer avirulence on P. syringae pv. glycinea inoculated to Harosoy. We inoculated Harosoy with P. syringae pv. glycinea expressing avrPto, but observed no hypersensitive reaction, avrPto-dependent induction of pathogenesis-related protein 1a, or limitation of bacterial population growth. In Hurrelbrink, avrPto enhanced bacterial multiplication and exacerbated symptoms. Our results establish SMV as an expression vector for soybean. They demonstrate that resistance triggered by avrB is effective against SMV, and that avrB and avrPto have general virulence effects in soybean. The results also led to a reevaluation of the reported avirulence activity of avrPto in this plant.
© 2006 The American Phytopathological Society