UMR INRA 1088 / CNRS 5184 / Université de Bourgogne, Plante-Microbe-Environnement, INRA 17 rue Sully, BP 86510, 21065 Dijon cedex, France
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Accepted 21 November 2005.
We have already reported the identification of the endopolygalacturonase 1 (BcPG1) from Botrytis cinerea as a potent elicitor of defense responses in grapevine, independently of its enzymatic activity. The aim of the present study is the analysis of the signaling pathways triggered by BcPG1 in grapevine cells. Our data indicate that BcPG1 induces a Ca2+ entry from the apoplasm, which triggers a phosphorylation-dependent nitric oxide (NO) production via an enzyme probably related to a NO synthase. Then NO is involved in i) cytosolic calcium homeostasis, by activating Ca2+ release from internal stores and regulating Ca2+ fluxes across the plasma membrane, ii) plasma membrane potential variation, iii) the activation of active oxygen species (AOS) production, and iv) defense gene expression, including phenylalanine ammonia lyase and stilbene synthase, which encode enzymes responsible for phytoalexin biosynthesis. Interestingly enough, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation is independent of this regulation pathway that closely connects Ca2+, NO, and AOS.
The American Phytopathological Society, 2006