The biocontrol bacterium Paenibacillus alvei K165 has the ability to protect Arabidopsis thaliana against Verticillium dahliae. A direct antagonistic action of strain K165 against V. dahliae was ruled out, making it likely that K165-mediated protection results from induced systemic resistance (ISR) in the host. K165-mediated protection was tested in various Arabidopsis mutants and transgenic plants impaired in defense signaling pathways, including NahG (transgenic line degrading salicylic acid [SA]), etr1-1 (insensitive to ethylene), jar1-1 (insensitive to jasmonate), npr1-1 (non-expressing NPR1 protein), pad3-1 (phytoalexin deficient), pad4-1 (phytoalexin deficient), eds5/sid1 (enhanced disease susceptibility), and sid2 (SA-induction deficient). ISR was blocked in blocked in Arabidopsis mutants npr1-1, eds5/sid1, and sid2, indicating that components of the pathway from isochorismate and a functional NPR1 play a crucial role in the K165-mediated ISR. Furthermore, the concomitant activation and increased transient accumulation of the PR-1, PR-2, and PR-5 genes were observed in the treatment in which both the inducing bacterial strain and the challenging pathogen were present in the rhizosphere of the A. thaliana plants.