Plant Cell Biology, Research School of Biological Sciences, The Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200, Australia
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Accepted 12 August 2005.
The Arabidopsis RIN4 protein mediates interaction between the Pseudomonas syringae type III effector proteins AvrB, AvrRpm1, and AvrRpt2 and the Arabidopsis disease-resistance proteins RPM1 and RPS2. Confocal laser-scanning fluorescence microscopy following particle bombardment of tobacco leaf epidermal cells was used to examine the subcellular localization of fusions between GFP and RIN4 or several of its homologs and to examine the effects of co-bombardment with AvrRpt2 or AvrRpm1. This study showed that RIN4 was attached to the plasma membrane at its carboxyl terminus and that a carboxyl-terminal CCCFxFxxx prenylation or acylation (typically palmitoylation) motif, or both, was essential for this attachment. RIN4 was cleaved by AvrRpt2 at two PxFGxW motifs, one releasing a large portion of RIN4 from the plasma membrane and both exposing amino-terminal residues that destabilized the carboxyl-terminal cleavage products by targeting them for N-end ubiquitylation and proteasomal degradation. Plasma-membrane localization of RIN4 was not affected by AvrRpm1. RIN4 was found to be part of a protein family comprising two full-length homologs and at least 11 short carboxyl-terminal homologs. Representatives of this family, comprising a full-length RIN4 homolog and two short carboxyl-terminal RIN4 homologs, were also attached to the plasma membrane and cleaved near their amino termini by AvrRpt2, but in contrast to RIN4, the major portions of these proteins remained on the plasma membrane. N-end degradation may play a minor role in RIN4 degradation but probably plays a major role in the degradation of RIN4 homologs and is, therefore, a major pathogenic consequence of AvrRpt2 cleavage.
plant disease resistance,
© 2005 The American Phytopathological Society