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Defense Responses of Fusarium oxysporum to 2,4-Diacetylphloroglucinol, a Broad-Spectrum Antibiotic Produced by Pseudomonas fluorescens

November 2004 , Volume 17 , Number  11
Pages  1,201 - 1,211

Alexander Schouten , 1 Grardy van den Berg , 1 Véronique Edel-Hermann , 2 Christian Steinberg , 2 Nadine Gautheron , 2 Claude Alabouvette , 2 C. H. (Ric) de Vos , 3 Philippe Lemanceau , 2 and Jos M. Raaijmakers 1

1Laboratory of Phytopathology, Plant Sciences Department, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 8025, 6700 EE Wageningen, The Netherlands; 2UMR Microbiologie et Géochimie des Sols, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA), 17 rue Sully, 21065 Dijon Cedex, France; 3Plant Research International, P.O. Box 16, 6700AA Wageningen, The Netherlands

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Accepted 5 July 2004.

A collection of 76 plant-pathogenic and 41 saprophytic Fusarium oxysporum strains was screened for sensitivity to 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (2,4-DAPG), a broad-spectrum antibiotic produced by multiple strains of antagonistic Pseudomonas fluorescens. Approximately 17% of the F. oxysporum strains were relatively tolerant to high 2,4-DAPG concentrations. Tolerance to 2,4-DAPG did not correlate with the geographic origin of the strains, formae speciales, intergenic spacer (IGS) group, or fusaric acid production levels. Biochemical analysis showed that 18 of 20 tolerant F. oxysporum strains were capable of metabolizing 2,4-DAPG. For two tolerant strains, analysis by mass spectrometry indicated that deacetylation of 2,4-DAPG to the less fungitoxic derivatives monoacetylphloroglucinol and phloroglucinol is among the initial mechanisms of 2,4-DAPG degradation. Production of fusaric acid, a known inhibitor of 2,4-DAPG biosynthesis in P. fluorescens, differed considerably among both 2,4-DAPG-sensitive and -tolerant F. oxysporum strains, indicating that fusaric acid production may be as important for 2,4-DAPG-sensitive as for -tolerant F. oxysporum strains. Whether 2,4-DAPG triggers fusaric acid production was studied for six F. oxysporum strains; 2,4-DAPG had no significant effect on fusaric acid production in four strains. In two strains, however, sublethal concentrations of 2,4-DAPG either enhanced or significantly decreased fusaric acid production. The implications of 2,4-DAPG degradation, the distribution of this trait within F. oxysporum and other plant-pathogenic fungi, and the consequences for the efficacy of biological control are discussed.

Additional keyword: detoxification.

© 2004 The American Phytopathological Society