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Arabidopsis DND2, a Second Cyclic Nucleotide-Gated Ion Channel Gene for Which Mutation Causes the “Defense, No Death” Phenotype

May 2004 , Volume 17 , Number  5
Pages  511 - 520

Grace I. Jurkowski , 1 , 2 Roger K. Smith , Jr. , 2 I-ching Yu , 2 Jong Hyun Ham , 1 , 2 Shashi B. Sharma , 3 Daniel F. Klessig , 3 Kevin A. Fengler , 2 and Andrew F. Bent 1 , 2

1Department of Plant Pathology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706, U.S.A.; 2Department of Crop Sciences, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801, U.S.A.; 3Boyce Thompson Institute for Plant Research, Ithaca, NY 14853, U.S.A.


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Accepted 22 December 2003.

A previous mutant screen identified Arabidopsis dnd1 and dnd2defense, no death” mutants, which exhibit loss of hypersensitive response (HR) cell death without loss of gene-for-gene resistance. The dnd1 phenotype is caused by mutation of the gene encoding cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) ion channel AtCNGC2. This study characterizes dnd2 plants. Even in the presence of high titers of Pseudomonas syringae expressing avrRpt2, most leaf mesophyll cells in the dnd2 mutant exhibited no HR. These plants retained strong RPS2-, RPM1-, or RPS4-mediated restriction of P. syringae pathogen growth. Mutant dnd2 plants also exhibited enhanced broad-spectrum resistance against virulent P. syringae and constitutively elevated levels of salicylic acid, and pathogenesis-related (PR) gene expression. Unlike the wild type, dnd2 plants responding to virulent and avirulent P. syringae exhibited elevated expression of both salicylatedependent PR-1 and jasmonate and ethylene—dependent PDF1.2. Introduction of nahG+ (salicylate hydroxylase) into the dnd2 background, which removes salicylic acid and causes other defense alterations, eliminated constitutive disease resistance and PR gene expression but only weakly impacted the HR¯ phenotype. Map-based cloning revealed that dnd2 phenotypes are caused by mutation of a second CNG ion channel gene, AtCNGC4. Hence, loss of either of two functionally nonredundant CNG ion channels can cause dnd phenotypes. The dnd mutants provide a unique genetic background for dissection of defense signaling.


Additional keywords: avrRpm1, P. syringae pv. tomato.

© 2004 The American Phytopathological Society