Interdisciplinary Research Centre for Environmental Sciences, Institute of Phytopathology and Applied Zoology, Justus-Liebig-University Giessen, Heinrich-Buff Ring 26-32, D-35392 Giessen, Germany
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Accepted 17 November 2003.
Nonhost resistance of cereals to inappropriate formae speciales of Blumeria graminis is little understood. However, on the microscopic level, nonhost defense to B. graminis is reminiscent of host defense preventing fungal development by penetration resistance and the hypersensitive cell death response (HR). We analyzed histochemically the accumulation of superoxide anion radicals (O2•¯) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) at sites of B. graminis attack in nonhost barley and wheat. Superoxide visualized by subcellular reduction of nitroblue tetrazolium accumulated in association with successful fungal penetration in attacked cells and in cells neighboring HR. In contrast, H2O2 accumulated in cell wall appositions beneath fungal penetration attempts or in the entire epidermal cell during HR. The data provide evidence for different roles and sources of superoxide and H2O2 in the nonhost interaction of cereals with inappropriate formae speciales of B. graminis.
The American Phytopathological Society, 2004