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Candidate Defense Genes from Rice, Barley, and Maize and Their Association with Qualitative and Quantitative Resistance in Rice

January 2003 , Volume 16 , Number  1
Pages  14 - 24

J. Ramalingam , 1 C. M. Vera Cruz , 2 K. Kukreja , 1 J. M. Chittoor , 1 J.-L. Wu , 2 S. W. Lee , 1 M. Baraoidan , 2 M. L. George , 2 M. B. Cohen , 2 S. H. Hulbert , 1 J. E. Leach , 1 and H. Leung 2

1Department of Plant Pathology, 4024 Throckmorton Plant Sciences Center, Kansas State University, Manhattan 66506-5502, U.S.A.; 2Entomology and Plant Pathology Division, International Rice Research Institute, DAPO Box 7777, Metro Manila, Philippines

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Accepted 6 September 2002.

Candidate genes involved in both recognition (resistance gene analogs [RGAs]) and general plant defense (putative defense response [DR]) were used as molecular markers to test for association with resistance in rice to blast, bacterial blight (BB), sheath blight, and brown plant-hopper (BPH). The 118 marker loci were either polymerase chain reaction-based RGA markers or restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) markers that included RGAs or putative DR genes from rice, barley, and maize. The markers were placed on an existing RFLP map generated from a mapping population of 116 doubled haploid (DH) lines derived from a cross between an improved indica rice cultivar, IR64, and a traditional japonica cultivar, Azucena. Most of the RGAs and DR genes detected a single locus with variable copy number and mapped on different chromosomes. Clusters of RGAs were observed, most notably on chromosome 11 where many known blast and BB resistance genes and quantitative trait loci (QTL) for blast, BB, sheath blight, and BPH were located. Major resistance genes and QTL for blast and BB resistance located on different chromosomes were associated with several candidate genes. Six putative QTL for BB were located on chromosomes 2, 3, 5, 7, and 8 and nine QTL for BPH resistance were located to chromosomes 3, 4, 6, 11, and 12. The alleles of QTL for BPH resistance were mostly from IR64 and each explained between 11.3 and 20.6% of the phenotypic variance. The alleles for BB resistance were only from the Azucena parent and each explained at least 8.4% of the variation. Several candidate RGA and DR gene markers were associated with QTL from the pathogens and pest. Several RGAs were mapped to BB QTL. Dihydrofolate reductase thymidylate synthase co-localized with two BPH QTL associated with plant response to feeding and also to blast QTL. Blast QTL also were associated with aldose reductase, oxalate oxidase, JAMyb (a jasmonic acid-induced Myb transcription factor), and peroxidase markers. The frame map provides reference points to select candidate genes for cosegregation analysis using other mapping populations, isogenic lines, and mutants.

© 2003 The American Phytopathological Society