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Pseudomonas Lipodepsipeptides and Fungal Cell Wall-Degrading Enzymes Act Synergistically in Biological Control

April 2002 , Volume 15 , Number  4
Pages  323 - 333

Vincenzo Fogliano , 1 Alessandro Ballio , 2 Monica Gallo , 1 Sheridan Woo , 3 Felice Scala , 3 and Matteo Lorito 3

1Dipartimento di Scienza degli Alimenti, Università di Napoli Federico II; 2Dipartimento di Scienze Biochimiche, Università di Roma “La Sapienza”; 3Dip. Ar.Bo.Pa.Ve. - sez. Patologia Vegetale, Università di Napoli Federico II, via Università 100, Portici, Napoli, Italy

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Accepted 15 November 2001.

Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae strain B359 secreted two main lipodepsipeptides (LDPs), syringomycin E (SRE) and syringopeptin 25A (SP25A), together with at least four types of cell wall—degrading enzymes (CWDEs). In antifungal bioassays, the purified toxins SRE and SP25A interacted synergistically with chitinolytic and glucanolytic enzymes purified from the same bacterial strain or from the biocontrol fungus Trichoderma atroviride strain P1. The synergism between LDPs and CWDEs occurred against all seven different fungal species tested and P. syringae itself, with a level dependent on the enzyme used to permeabilize the microbial cell wall. The antifungal activity of SP25A was much more increased by the CWDE action than was that of the smaller SRE, suggesting a stronger antifungal role for SP25A. In vivo biocontrol assays were performed by using P. syringae alone or in combination with T. atroviride, including a Trichoderma endochitinase knock-out mutant in place of the wild type and a chitinase-specific enzyme inhibitor. These experiments clearly indicate that the synergistic interaction LDPs—CWDEs is involved in the antagonistic mechanism of P. syringae, and they support the concept that a more effective disease control is given by the combined action of the two agents.

Additional keywords: plasma membrane.

© 2002 The American Phytopathological Society