Poster: Biology & Disease Mgmt: Postharvest Pathology & Mycotoxins
Mycotoxins contamination on hybrids and landraces of stored maize grain in México
L. VASQUEZ-SILLER (1), K. Ordóñez-Morales (2), J. Soria-Ruíz (3) (1) Universidad Autónoma Agraria Antonio Narro, Mexico; (2) Semillas Berestain, Mexico; (3) Instituto nacional de Investigaciones Forestales Agricolas y Pecuarias (INIFAP), Mexico
Mycotoxins contamination is a human and animal health problem because the exposure to such substances present on grains infected by several fungi can cause diseases; thus this work explored mycotoxins contamination levels on maize grain in México. A survey was conducted in six locations forming three sets of samples including hybrids and landraces collected by UAAAN, a seed enterprise and cooperating farmers. 31 samples were tested for moisture content (MC) by constant temperature oven method; phytopathogenic fungi detected and counted by freeze blotter test, and aflatoxins B1, total fumonisins and deoxynivalenol contamination levels determined with inverted ELISA test (Enzyme-Linked-Immune-Sorbent-Assay) (Romer Labs®). General mean of MC was 11.63%. Potentially toxigenic phytopathogenic fungi detected were Fusarium verticillioides 7.6%, Fusarium graminearum 2%, Aspergillus spp. 9.2% and Penicillium spp. 1.1%. Mycotoxins levels were 0.106-2.665 ppm of total fumonisins, 0.64-2.67 ppm of deoxynivalenol and 0 ppb of aflatoxins B1. Mycotoxins levels detected on maize grain were safe for consumption according to Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recommendations, which are: 2-4 ppm of total fumonisins, 5-10 ppm of deoxynivalenol and 20 ppb of aflatoxins B1. Some mycotoxins detection levels were near the FDA risk values, indicating the need to regulate also other mycotoxins than total aflatoxins, which currently is the only one regulated by the Government of México.