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Diseases of Corn or Maize
(Zea mays L.)

M. C. Shurtleff, D. I. Edwards, G. R. Noel, W. L. Pedersen, and D. G. White, primary collators (last update 4/3/93)

BACTERIAL DISEASES

(Also a spiroplasma)
Bacterial leaf blight and stalk rot
Pseudomonas avenae subsp. avenae Manns
Bacterial leaf spot
Xanthomonas campestris pv. holcicola (Elliott) Dye
Bacterial stalk rot
Enterobacter dissolvens (Rosen) Brenner et al.
= Erwinia dissolvens (Rosen) Burkholder
Bacterial stalk and top rot
Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora (Jones) Bergey et al.
Erwinia chrysanthemi pv. zeae (Sabet) Victoria et al.
Bacterial stripe
Pseudomonas andropogonis (Smith) Stapp
Chocolate spot
Pseudomonas syringae pv. coronafaciens (Elliott) Young et al.
Goss's bacterial wilt and blight (leaf freckles and wilt)
Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. nebraskensis (Vidaver &
    Mandel) Davis et al.
= Corynebacterium michiganense pv. nebraskense
   
(Schuster et al.) Dye & Kemp
Holcus spot
Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae van Hall
Purple leaf sheath
Hemiparasitic bacteria + (See under Fungi)
Seed rot-seedling blight
Bacillus subtilis (Ehrenberg) Cohn
Stewart's disease (bacterial wilt)
Erwinia stewartii (Smith) Dye
Corn stunt (achapparramiento, maize stunt, Mesa Central or Rio Grande maize stunt)
Spiroplasma kunkelii Whitcomb et al.

FUNGAL DISEASES

Anthracnose leaf blight and anthracnose stalk rot
Colletotrichum graminicola (Ces.) G.W. Wils.
(teleomorph: Glomerella graminicola Politis)
Glomerella tucumanensis (Speg.) Arx & E. Müller
(anamorph: Glomerella falcatum Went)
Aspergillus ear and kernel rot
Aspergillus flavus Link:Fr.
Banded leaf and sheath spot*
Rhizoctonia solani Kühn
= Rhizoctonia microsclerotia J. Matz
(teleomorph: Thanatephorus cucumeris (A.B. Frank) Donk)
Black bundle disease
Acremonium strictum W. Gams
= Cephalosporium acremonium Auct. non Corda
Black kernel rot*
Lasiodiplodia theobromae (Pat.) Griffon & Maubl.
= Botryodiplodia theobromae Pat.
Borde blanco*
Marasmiellus sp.
Brown spot (black spot, stalk rot)
Physoderma maydis (Miyabe) Miyabe
Cephalosporium kernel rot
Acremonium strictum W. Gams
= Cephalosporium acremonium Auct. non Corda
Charcoal rot
Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goidanich
Corticium ear rot*
Thanatephorus cucumeris (A.B. Frank) Donk
= Corticium sasakii (Shirai) Matsumoto
Curvularia leaf spot
Curvularia clavata P.C. Jain
C. eragrostidis (Henn.) J.A. Meyer
= C. maculans (Bancroft) Boedijn
(teleomorph: Cochliobolus eragrostidis (Tsuda & Ueyama)
    Sivanesan
Curvularia inaequalis (Shear) Boedijn
C. intermedia Boedijn
(teleomorph: Cochliobolus intermedius R.R. Nelson)
Curvularia lunata (Wakk.) Boedijn
(teleomorph: Cochliobolus lunatus R.R. Nelson & Haasis)
Curvularia pallescens Boedijn
(teleomorph: Cochliobolus pallescens (Tsuda & Ueyama)
    Sivanesan)
Curvularia senegalensis (Speg.) Subramanian
C. tuberculata P.C. Jain
(teleomorph: Cochliobolus tuberculatus Sivanesan)
Didymella leaf spot*
Didymella exitalis (Morini) E. Muller
Diplodia ear rot and stalk rot
Diplodia frumenti Ellis & Everh.
(teleomorph: Botryosphaeria festucae (Lib.) Arx & E. Müller
Diplodia ear rot, stalk rot, seed rot and seedling blight
Diplodia maydis (Berk.) Sacc.
Diplodia leaf spot or leaf streak
Stenocarpella macrospora (Earle) Sutton
= Diplodia macrospora Earle

Downy mildews:

Brown stripe downy mildew*
Sclerophthora rayssiae Kenneth et al. var. zeae Payak & Renfro
Crazy top downy mildew
Sclerophthora macrospora (Sacc.) Thirumalachar et al.
= Sclerospora macrospora Sacc.
Green ear downy mildew (graminicola downy mildew)
Sclerospora graminicola (Sacc.) J. Schröt.
Java downy mildew*
Peronosclerospora maydis (Racib.) C.G. Shaw
= Sclerospora maydis (Racib.) Butler
Philippine downy mildew*
Peronosclerospora philippinensis (W. Weston) C.G. Shaw
= Sclerospora philippinensis W. Weston
Sorghum downy mildew
Peronosclerospora sorghi (W. Weston & Uppal) C.G. Shaw
= Sclerospora sorghi W. Weston & Uppal
Spontaneum downy mildew*
Peronosclerospora spontanea (W. Weston) C.G. Shaw
= Sclerospora spontanea W. Weston
Sugarcane downy mildew*
Peronosclerospora sacchari (T. Miyake) Shirai & Hara
= Sclerospora sacchari T. Miyake
Dry ear rot (cob, kernel and stalk rot)
Nigrospora oryzae (Berk. & Broome) Petch
(teleomorph: Khuskia oryzae H.J. Hudson)
Ear rots, minor
Alternaria alternata (Fr.:Fr.) Keissl.
= A. tenuis Nees
Aspergillus glaucus Link:Fr.
A. niger Tiegh.
Aspergillus spp.
Botrytis cinerea Pers.:Fr.
(teleomorph: Botryotinia fuckeliana (de Bary) Whetzel)
Cunninghamella sp.
Curvularia pallescens Boedijn
Doratomyces stemonitis (Pers.:Fr.) F.J.
= Cephalotrichum stemonitis (Pers.:Fr.) Link
Fusarium culmorum (Wm.G. Sm.) Sacc.
Gonatobotrys simplex Corda
Pithomyces maydicus (Sacc.) M.B. Ellis
Rhizopus microsporus Tiegh.
R. stolonifer (Ehrenb.:Fr.) Vuill.
= R. nigricans Ehrenb.
Scopulariopsis brumptii Salvanet-Duval
Ergot* (horse's tooth, diente de caballo)
Claviceps gigantea Fuentes et al.
(anamorph: Sphacelia sp.)
Eyespot
Aureobasidium zeae (Narita & Hiratsuka) J.M. Dingley
= Kabatiella zeae Narita & Hiratsuka
Fusarium ear and stalk rot
Fusarium subglutinans (Wollenweb. & Reinking)
    P.E. Nelson et al.
= F. moniliforme J. Sheld. var. subglutinans Wollenweb.
    & Reinking
Fusarium kernel, root and stalk rot, seed rot and seedling blight
Fusarium moniliforme J. Sheld.
(teleomorph: Gibberella fujikuroi (Sawada) Ito in Ito &
    K. Kimura)
Fusarium stalk rot, seedling root rot
Fusarium avenaceum (Fr.:Fr.) Sacc.
(teleomorph: Gibberella avenacea R.J. Cooke)
Gibberella ear and stalk rot
Gibberella zeae (Schwein.) Petch
(anamorph: Fusarium graminearum Schwabe)
Gray ear rot
Botryosphaeria zeae (G.L. Stout) Arx & E. Müller
= Physalospora zeae G.L. Stout
(anamorph: Macrophoma zeae Tehon & E.Y. Daniels)
Gray leaf spot (Cercospora leaf spot)
Cercospora sorghi Ellis & Everh.
= C. sorghi Ellis & Everh. var. maydis Ellis & Everh.
C. zeae-maydis Tehon & E.Y. Daniels
Helminthosporium root rot
Exserohilum pedicellatum (A.W. Henry) K.J. Leonard
    & E.G. Suggs
= Helminthosporium pedicellatum A.W. Henry
(teleomorph: Setosphaeria pedicellata (R.R. Nelson) K.J.
    Leonard & E.G. Suggs)
Hormodendrum ear rot (Cladosporium rot)
Cladosporium cladosporioides (Fresen.) G.A. De Vries
= Hormodendrum cladosporioides (Fresen.) Sacc.
C. herbarum (Pers.:Fr.) Link
(teleomorph: Mycosphaerella tassiana (De Not.) Johans.)
Hyalothyridium leaf spot*
Hyalothyridium maydis Latterell & Rossi
Late wilt*
Cephalosporium maydis Samra et al.
Leaf spots, minor
Alternaria alternata (Fr.:Fr.) Keissl.
Ascochyta maydis G.L. Stout
A. tritici S. Hori & Enjoji
A. zeicola Ellis & Everh.
Bipolaris victoriae (F. Meehan & Murphy) Shoemaker
= Helminthosporium victoriae F. Meehan & Murphy
(teleomorph: Cochliobolus victoriae R.R. Nelson)
C. sativus (Ito & Kuribayashi) Drechs. ex Dastur
(anamorph: Bipolaris sorokiniana (Sacc.) Shoemaker
= H. sorokinianum Sacc. in Sorokin
= H. sativum Pammel et al.)
Epicoccum nigrum Link
Exserohilum prolatum K.J. Leonard & E.G. Suggs
= Drechslera prolata (K.J. Leonard & E.G. Suggs) Sivanesan
(teleomorph: Setosphaeria prolata K.J. Leonard & E.G.
    Suggs)
Graphium penicillioides Corda
Leptosphaeria maydis G.L. Stout
Leptothyrium zeae G.L. Stout
Ophiosphaerella herpotricha (Fr.:Fr.) J. C. Walker
(anamorph: Scolecosporiella sp.)
Paraphaeosphaeria michotii (Westend.) O. Eriksson
Phoma sp.
Septoria zeae G.L. Stout
S. zeicola G.L. Stout
S. zeina G.L. Stout
Northern corn leaf blight (white blast, crown stalk rot, stripe)
Setosphaeria turcica (Luttrell) K.J. Leonard & E.G. Suggs (anamorph: Exserohilum turcicum (Pass.) K.J. Leonard &
    E.G. Suggs
  • = Helminthosporium turcicum Pass.)
Northern corn leaf spot, Helminthosporium ear rot (race 1)
Cochliobolus carbonum R.R. Nelson (anamorph: Bipolaris zeicola (G.L. Stout) Shoemaker
  • = Helminthosporium carbonum Ullstrup)
Penicillium ear rot (blue eye, blue mold)
Penicillium spp.
P. chrysogenum Thom
P. expansum Link
P. oxalicum Currie & Thom
Phaeocytostroma stalk rot and root rot
Phaeocytostroma ambiguum (Mont.) Petr. & Syd.
= Phaeocytosporella zeae G.L. Stout
Phaeosphaeria leaf spot*
Phaeosphaeria maydis (P. Henn.) Rane, Payak & Renfro
= Sphaerulina maydis P. Henn.
Physalospora ear rot (Botryosphaeria ear rot)
Botryosphaeria festucae (Lib.) Arx & E. Müller
= Physalospora zeicola Ellis & Everh.
(anamorph: Diplodia frumenti Ellis & Everh.)
Purple leaf sheath
Hemiparasitic bacteria and fungi
Pyrenochaeta stalk rot and root rot
Phoma terrestris E.M. Hans.
= Pyrenochaeta terrestris (E.M. Hans.) Gorenz et al.
Pythium root rot
Pythium spp.
P. arrhenomanes Drechs.
P. graminicola Subramanian
Pythium stalk rot
Pythium aphanidermatum (Edson) Fitzp.
= P. butleri L. Subramanian
Red kernel disease (ear mold, leaf and seed rot)
Epicoccum nigrum Link
Rhizoctonia ear rot (sclerotial rot)
Rhizoctonia zeaeVoorhees
(teleomorph: Waitea circinata Warcup & Talbot)
Rhizoctonia root rot and stalk rot
Rhizoctonia solani Kühn
R. zeae Voorhees
Root rots, minor
Alternaria alternata (Fr.:Fr.) Keissl.
Cercospora sorghi Ellis & Everh.
Dictochaeta fertilis (S.J. Hughes & Kendrick)
    Holubova-Jechova
Fusarium acuminatum Ellis & Everh.
(teleomorph: Gibberella acuminata Wollenweb.)
F. equiseti (Corda) Sacc.
(teleomorph: G. intricans Wollenweb.)
F. oxysporum Schlechtend.:Fr.
F. pallidoroseum (Cooke) Sacc.
F. poae (Peck) Wollenweb.
F. roseum Link:Fr.
G. cyanogena (Desmaz.) Sacc.
(anamorph: F. sulphureum Schlechtend.)
Microdochium bolleyi (R. Sprague) DeHoog &
    Hermanides-Nijhof
Mucor sp.
Periconia circinata (L. Mangin) Sacc.
Phytophthora cactorum (Lebert & Cohn) J. Schrot.
P. drechsleri Tucker
P. nicotianae Breda de Haan var. parasitica (Dastur)
    G.M. Waterhouse
Rhizopus arrhizus A. Fischer
Rostratum leaf spot (Helminthosporium leaf disease, ear and stalk rot)
Setosphaeria rostrata K.J. Leonard (anamorph: Exserohilum rostratum (Drechs.) K.J. Leonard & E.G. Suggs
  • = Helminthosporium rostratum Drechs.)
Rust, common corn
Puccinia sorghi Schwein.
Rust, southern corn
Puccinia polysora Underw.
Rust, tropical corn
Physopella pallescens (Arth.) Cummins & Ramachar
P. zeae (Mains) Cummins & Ramachar
= Angiopsora zeae Mains
Sclerotium ear rot* (southern blight)
Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc.
(teleomorph: Athelia rolfsii (Curzi) Tu & Kimbrough)
Seed rot-seedling blight
Bipolaris sorokiniana (Sacc.) Shoemaker
B. zeicola (G.L. Stout) Shoemaker
= Helminthosporium carbonum Ullstrup
Diplodia maydis (Berk.) Sacc.
Exserohilum pedicillatum (A.W. Henry) K.J. Leonard &
    E.G. Suggs
Exserohilum turcicum (Pass.) K.J. Leonard & E.G. Suggs
= Helminthosporium turcicum Pass.
Fusarium avenaceum (Fr.:Fr.) Sacc.
F. culmorum (Wm. G. Sm.) Sacc.
F. moniliforme J. Sheld.
Gibberella zeae (Schwein.) Petch
(anamorph: F. graminearum Schwabe)
Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goidanich
Penicillium spp.
Phomopsis sp.
Pythium spp.
Rhizoctonia solani Kühn
R. zeae Voorhees
Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc.
Spicaria sp.
Selenophoma leaf spot*
Selenophoma sp.
Sheath rot
Gaeumannomyces graminis (Sacc.) Arx & D. Olivier
Shuck rot
Myrothecium gramineum Lib.
Silage mold
Monascus purpureus Went
M. ruber Tiegh.
Smut, common
Ustilago zeae (Beckm.) Unger
= U. maydis (DC.) Corda)
Smut, false
Ustilaginoidea virens (Cooke) Takah.
Smut, head
Sphacelotheca reiliana (Kuhn) G.P. Clinton)
= Sporisorium holci-sorghi (Rivolta) K. Vanky
Southern corn leaf blight and stalk rot
Cochliobolus heterostrophus (Drechs.) Drechs.
(anamorph: Bipolaris maydis (Nisikado & Miyake)
    Shoemaker
= Helminthosporium maydis (Nisikado & Miyake)
Southern leaf spot
Stenocarpella macrospora (Earle) Sutton
= Diplodia macrospora Earle)
Stalk rots, minor
Cercospora sorghi Ellis & Everh.
Fusarium episphaeria (Tode) W.C. Snyder & H.N. Hans.
F. merismoides Corda
F. oxysporum Schlechtend.:Fr.
F. poae (Peck) Wollenweb.
F. roseum Link:Fr.
F. solani (Mart.) Sacc.
(teleomorph: Nectria haematococca Berk. & Broome)
F. tricinctum (Corda) Sacc.
Mariannaea elegans (Corda) R.A. Samson
Mucor sp.
Rhopographus zeae Pat.
Spicaria sp.
Storage rots
Aspergillus spp.
Penicillium spp. and other fungi
Tar spot*
Phyllachora maydis Maubl.
Trichoderma ear rot and root rot
Trichoderma viride Pers.:Fr.
= T. lignorum (Tode)
(teleomorph: Hypocrea sp.)
White ear rot, root and stalk rot
Stenocarpella maydis (Berk.) Sutton
= Diplodia zeae (Schwein.) Lév.
Yellow leaf blight
Ascochyta ischaemi Sacc.
Phyllosticta maydis D.C. Arny & R.R. Nelson
(teleomorph: Mycosphaerella zeae-maydis Mukunya &
    Boothroyd)
Zonate leaf spot
Gloeocercospora sorghi Bain & Edgerton ex Deighton

MITE DAMAGE

Kernel red streak
Feeding of wheat curl mite (Aceriatulipae) Keifer

NEMATODES, PARASITIC

Awl
Dolichodorus spp.
D. heterocephalus Cobb
Bulb and stem*
Ditylenchus dipsaci (Kühn) Filipjev
Burrowing
Radopholus similis (Cobb) Thorne
Cyst
Heterodera avenae Wollenweb.
H. zeae Koshy et al.
Punctodera chalcoensis Stone et al.
Dagger
Xiphinema spp.
X. americanum Cobb
X. mediterraneum Lima
False root-knot
Nacobbus dorsalis Thorne & Allen
Lance, Columbia
Hoplolaimus columbus Sher
Lance
Hoplolaimus spp.
H. galeatus (Cobb) Thorne
Lesion
Pratylenchus spp.
P. brachyurus (Godfrey) Filipjev & Schuurmans Stekhoven
P. crenatus Loof
P. hexincisus Taylor & Jenkins
P. neglectus (Rensch) Filipjev & Schuurmans Stekhoven
P. penetrans (Cobb) Filipjev & Schuurmans-Stekhoven
P. scribneri Steiner
P. thornei Sher & Allen
P. zeae Graham
Needle
Longidorus spp.
L. breviannulatus Norton & Hoffman
Ring
Criconemella spp.
C. ornata (Raski) Luc & Raski
Root-knot
Meloidogyne spp.
M. chitwoodi Golden et al.
M. incognita (Kofoid & White) Chitwood
M. javanica (Treub) Chitwood
Spiral
Helicotylenchus spp.
Sting
Belonolaimus spp.
B. longicaudatus Rau
Stubby-root
Paratrichodorus spp.
P. christiei (Allen) Siddiqi
P. minor (Colbran) Siddiqi
Quinisulcius acutus (Allen) Siddiqi
Trichodorus spp.
Stunt
Tylenchorhynchus dubius (Butschli) Filipjev

PARASITIC HIGHER PLANTS

Witchweed disease
Striga asiatica (L.) Kuntze
= S. lutea Lour.
S. hermonthica (Del.) Benth.

VIRUS AND VIRUSLIKE DISEASES

(Also mycoplasmalike organisms [MLO])
American wheat striate (wheat striate mosaic)
American wheat striate mosaic virus mosaic (AWSMV)
Barley stripe mosaic
Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV)
Barley yellow dwarf
Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV)
Brome mosaic
Brome mosaic virus (BMV)
Cereal chlorotic mottle*
Cereal chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV)
Corn lethal necrosis
Virus complex (Maize chlorotic mottle virus [MCMV] and Maize dwarf mosaic virus [MDMV] A or B or Wheat streak mosaic virus [WSMV])
Cucumber mosaic
Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV)
Johnsongrass mosaic
Johnsongrass mosaic virus (JGMV)
Maize bushy stunt
Mycoplasmalike organism (MLO), assoc.
Maize chlorotic dwarf
Maize chlorotic dwarf virus (MCDV)
Maize chlorotic mottle
Maize chlorotic mottle virus (MCMV)
Maize dwarf mosaic
Maize dwarf mosaic virus (MDMV) strains A, D, E and F
Maize leaf fleck
Maize leaf fleck virus (MLFV)
Maize line*
Maize line virus (MLV)
Maize mosaic (corn leaf stripe, enanismo rayado)
Maize mosaic virus (MMV)
Maize pellucid ringspot*
Maize pellucid ringspot virus (MPRV)
Maize rayado fino* (fine striping disease)
Maize rayado fino virus (MRFV)
Maize red leaf and red stripe*
Mollicute?
Maize red stripe*
Maize red stripe virus (MRSV)
Maize ring mottle*
Maize ring mottle virus (MRMV)
Maize rough dwarf* (nanismo ruvido)
Maize rough dwarf virus (MRDV)
(= Cereal tillering disease virus* and Maize rio cuarto disease*)
Maize sterile stunt*
Maize sterile stunt virus (strains of barley yellow striate virus)
Maize streak*
Maize streak virus (MSV)
Maize stripe (maize chlorotic stripe, maize hoja blanca)
Maize stripe virus
Maize tassel abortion*
Maize tassel abortion virus (MTAV)
Maize vein enation*
Maize vein enation virus (MVEV)
Maize wallaby ear*
Maize wallaby ear virus (MWEV)
Maize white leaf*
Maize white leaf virus
Maize white line mosaic
Maize white line mosaic virus (MWLMV)
Millet red leaf*
Millet red leaf virus (MRLV)
Northern cereal mosaic*
Northern cereal mosaic virus (NCMV)
Oat pseudorosette* (zakuklivanie)
Oat pseudorosette virus
Oat sterile dwarf*
Oat sterile dwarf virus (OSDV)
Rice black-streaked dwarf*
Rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV)
Rice stripe*
Rice stripe virus (RSV)
Sorghum mosaic
Sorghum mosaic virus (SrMV), formerly sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) strains H, I and M
Sugarcane Fiji disease*
Sugarcane Fiji disease virus (FDV)
Sugarcane mosaic
Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) strains A, B, D, E, SC, BC, Sabi and MB (formerly MDMV-B)

VIRAL DISEASES, minor**

Corn chlorotic vein banding (Brazilian maize mosaic)
Corn chlorotic vein banding virus (CCVBV)
Cynodon chlorotic streak*
Cynodon chlorotic streak virus (CCSV)
Maize mottle and chlorotic stunt
Maize mottle and chlorotic stunt virus*
Maize raya gruesa*
Maize raya gruesa virus (MRGV)
Maize Rio IV*
Maize Rio IV virus
Maize stunting*
Maize stunting virus
Vein enation*
Virus ?
Wheat spot mosaic
Wheat spot mosaic virus (WSMV)

*Not known to occur naturally on corn (maize) in the United States.

** Viruses unverified or not yet accepted by common name usage.