Jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) is an economically-important fruit crop grown in Europe, Australia, and southern/eastern Asia. In China, it is often called red date and the fruit is used in traditional Chinese herbal medicine and wine. In February 2014, jujube plants growing in a sandy soil in Sanya, Hainan Province, China, were observed exhibiting symptoms of decline, including stunting, wilting, and no flowering or fruit set. Roots systems of sick plants (n = 20) had many galls, the typical symptoms of root-knot nematode infection, and the incidence of infection was 100%. These galls were formed in the primary, secondary, and tertiary roots. Meloidogyne spp. females and egg masses were dissected from the symptomatic roots. Each root contained about 72 females on average (n = 20). The perineal patterns of females (n = 10) were oval shaped with moderate to high dorsal arches and mostly lacking obvious lateral lines. Second-stage juveniles (n = 20) had large and triangular lateral lips and broad, bluntly rounded tail tips. These morphological characteristics are the same as those for Meloidogyne enterolobii Yang & Eisenback 1983 (5). Identification was further confirmed after DNA extraction from 12 nematodes. Part of the rDNA spanning the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) 1, 5.8S gene, and ITS2 was amplified with primers V5367/26S (TTGATTACGTCCCTGCCCTTT/TTTCACTCGCCGTTACTAAGG) (4). A 764-bp fragment was amplified, which was 100% identical to sequences of M. enterolobii (GenBank Accession Nos. KJ146863, KF418369, JQ082448, and JX024149) in GenBank. Species identification was confirmed by using PCR to amplify mitochondrial (mt) DNA and rDNA intergenic spacers (IGS) 2 with primers C2F3/1108 (GGTCAATGTTCAGAAATTTGTGG/TACCTTTGACCAATCACGCT) (3) and M. enterolobii specific primers Me-F/Me-R (AACTTTTGTGAAAGTGCCGCTG/TCAGTTCAGGCAGGATCAACC), respectively (2). The PCR products were approximately 700 bp for mtDNA and 200 bp for rDNA-IGS2, which were also identical to those previously reported for M. enterolobii (2,3). M. enterolobii is considered as one of the most damaging root-knot nematode species due to its wide host range, high reproduction rate, and ability to overcome the resistance genes (Mi-1, Mh, Mir1, N, Tabasco, and Rk) in several crops (1). It is reported that over 20 plant species from eight families (Annonaceae, Apiaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Convolvulaceae, Fabaceae, Marantaceae, Myrtaceae, and Solanaceae) in China are hosts for M. enterolobii. To our knowledge, this is the first report of jujube as a host of M. enterolobii and the first record of M. enterolobii as a parasite of a plant in the family Rhamnaceae in China.
References: (1) P. Castagnone-Sereno. Nematology 14:133, 2002. (2) H. Long et al. Acta Phytopathol. Sinica 36:109, 2006. (3) T. O. Powers and T. S. Harris. J. Nematol. 25:1, 1993. (4) T. C. Vrain et al. Fundam. Appl. Nematol. 15:565, 1992. (5) B. Yang and J. D. Eisenback. J. Nematol. 15:381, 1983.
Get ALL the Latest Updates for ICPP2018: PLANT HEALTH IN A GLOBAL ECONOMY. Follow APS!