Management of Calonectria spp. infections in nurseries requires scheduled fungicide applications, particularly with methyl benzimidazole carbamates (MBCs) and sterol demethylation inhibitors (DMIs). Due to rising concerns about the occurrence of MBC resistance in different Calonectria populations and variability in prochloraz efficacy in controlling these pathogens, a detailed study on prochloraz sensitivity distributions of Calonectria isolates belonging to the Calonectria scoparia complex was carried out. In total, 105 isolates collected in two distinct periods (1993 to 1996 and 2005 to 2009) were analyzed for prochloraz sensitivity. Based on DNA sequencing and phylogenetic analyses of β-tubulin, histone H3, and translation elongation factor-1α gene sequences, 69 and 36 isolates were identified as C. pauciramosa and C. polizzii, respectively. The isolates collected more recently (group B) had a reduced prochloraz sensitivity, as indicated by greater values for the effective dose to reduce growth by 50% than those collected earlier (group A). The reduced sensitivity detected in vitro corresponded to partial loss of fungicide efficacy in controlling infections in red clover and feijoa under controlled and semi-field conditions, respectively. Frequent prochloraz application in nurseries for controlling Calonectria spp. infections is discouraged.
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