The sensitivity to seven chemical classes of fungicides was investigated in 1,810 Botrytis cinerea isolates collected from strawberry blossoms and fruit in 181 strawberry fields from seven southern states in the United States across 2 years. Ten isolates were examined from each field. Fungicide sensitivity assays were carried out based on visual assessment of diametrical mycelial growth after 4 days of incubation on media amended with discriminatory doses of fungicides in microtiter plates. Results of visual assessments were verified with selected isolates using a previously published germination assay and by inoculating representative isolates with resistant phenotypes on fungicide-sprayed fruit. The overall resistance frequencies of 750 isolates collected in 2012 for thiophanate-methyl, pyraclostrobin, boscalid, cyprodinil, fenhexamid, iprodione, and fludioxonil were 76, 42, 29, 27, 25, 3, and 1%, respectively. Frequencies of 1,060 isolates collected in 2013 were 85, 59, 5, 17, 26, 2, and 1%, respectively. Resistance to thiophanate-methyl and pyraclostrobin was found in virtually every location in both years, whereas resistance to iprodione and fludioxonil was rarely found. Resistant isolates were resistant to either one (23%), two (18%), three (19%), four (14%), five (3%), or six (0.1%) chemical classes of fungicides in 2012. In 2013, this distribution was 24, 29, 26, 8, 2, and 0.3%, respectively. Multifungicide-resistant isolates of B. cinerea were widespread in southern states and evidence suggests that the frequency of isolates with multifungicide resistance increased from 2012 to 2013. The data also show that fungicide resistance in B. cinerea was already present in blossoms, indicating that resistance management needs to be implemented early in the season.
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