During the 2013 winter cut flower production season, a severe anthracnose epidemic was observed on Lupinus mutabilis (syn L. cruckshanksii) on a commercial flower farm in Martin County, FL. Approximately 50% of the crop was lost to the disease. Symptoms included dark brown, irregularly shaped leaf spots, but more typically, there was a single severe twist in the stem, forming a distinctive necrotic crook. Margins of necrotic lesions were excised and surface sterilized by immersion in 1% sodium hypochlorite for 90 s, rinsed in sterile deionized water, and plated onto potato dextrose agar (PDA). Plates were incubated at approximately 27°C with cycles of 12 h light/12 h darkness. Infected tissue consistently produced colonies that were typical of the genus Colletotrichum. Conidia were primarily oval, with one rounded end and one pointed end, and were highly variable in size, ranging from 10 to 15 μm in length and 3.5 to 5.5 μm in width. Cultures were gray with orange spots, and no setae were observed. These morphological characteristics are consistent with those of Colletotrichum lupini (2). Identification of this species was confirmed by performing a BLASTn search with ITS sequence data (primers ITS4 and ITS5), which shared 99% identity with GenBank submission AJ301968, C. lupini var. setosum strain BBA 71310, isolated from L. luteus in Poland. Inoculum was produced by flooding PDA cultures with sterile deionized water, scraping with a rubber policeman, and passing the suspension through four layers of sterile cheesecloth. This preparation was used to inoculate 10 L. mutabilis and 10 L. hartwegii plants by injecting 10 μl of a suspension of 105 conidia/ml into the stem using a hypodermic needle (1). Ten additional plants were injected with sterile deionized water and maintained with the inoculated plants in the greenhouse for 4 weeks. All of the inoculated plants developed the previously-observed necrotic crook in the stem, whereas control plants developed no symptoms. The same organism was isolated from all inoculated plants. The ITS region was again sequenced, and the Polish strain was the closest match. The Floridian isolate sequence was deposited in GenBank (KF207599). Epidemics of anthracnose on ornamental lupins are common in most areas in which they are grown. In 1939, research plots of L. angustifolius were found with symptoms of anthracnose caused by Glomerella cingulata (3). Although it is not possible to determine if this isolate would be redefined as C. lupini, it does not seem likely since pathogenicity was confirmed on L. angustifolius and L. albus, but it did not cause infection on L. luteus (3) as has been reported for C. lupini (2). The finding of a lupin anthracnose in southeastern Florida is important to both the cut flower producers as well as vegetable producers who might consider some species of Lupinus as potential green manure crops. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of C. lupini or any Colletotrichum species on L. hartwegii and L. mutabilis in Florida.
References: (1) W. H. Elmer et al. Plant Dis 85:216, 2001. (2) H. I. Nirenger et al. Mycologia 94:307, 2002. (3) J. L. Weimer. Phytopathology 43:249, 1943.
Get ALL the Latest Updates for ICPP2018: PLANT HEALTH IN A GLOBAL ECONOMY. Follow APS!