Duboisia sp. is a small tree belonging to the family Solanaceae originating from the rainforest areas of the eastern coast of Australia. Dried leaves are used for the extraction of pharmaceutical alkaloids, making this a commercially viable crop. The root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita has been reported parasitizing Duboisia myoporoides (5); however, no information of other root-knot nematode species associated with this plant was found. Duboisia sp. is cultivated at Solana Farm, near Arapongas (23°25′08″ S, 51°25′26″ W), Paraná State, Brazil. During the renovation of a production field in this municipality, galled roots were observed on plants and samples were submitted to the Nematology Laboratory at Instituto Agronômico do Paraná, IAPAR, on December 2013. Plants did not exhibit any above-ground symptoms. The specimens were identified through perineal patterns and esterase phenotypes of 20 adult females extracted from dissected roots (2,3) and morphometrics of 10 second-stage juveniles extracted from roots using the blender-sieving method (1). Morphological characteristics were consistent with those described for M. javanica (4). Females had rounded perineal patterns with low, trapezoid shape dorsal arch, striae smooth interrupted by a pair of incisures on both sides, corresponding to lateral fields, clearly demarcated from striae by more or less parallel lines, tail whorl often distinct (4). The juvenile mean body length was 459.9 ± 28.7 μm and tail length averaged 51.6 ± 5.1 μm, with 10 to 16 μm long hyaline region and finely rounded tail tip (4). Results from the esterase electrophoresis were typical of M. javanica (2) with the J3 (Rm = 1.0, 1.3, and 1.4) phenotype being obtained. To our knowledge, this is the first report of M. javanica on Duboisia sp. in Brazil. This finding has great importance for Brazilian production since this nematode may damage plants, reduce yields, and control of this nematode on Duboisia sp. is difficult (5). Additional work is necessary in order to elucidate the losses caused by M. javanica on Duboisia sp.
References: (1) J. I. Bonetti and S. Ferraz. Fitopatol. Bras. 6:533, 1981. (2) P. R. Esbenshade and A. C. Triantaphyllou. J. Nematol. 22:10, 1990. (3) K. M. Hartman and J. N. Sasser. Page 115 in: An Advanced Treatise on Meloidogyne. Volume II Methodology. K. R. Barker et al., eds. North Carolina State University Graphics, Raleigh, 1985. (4) D. J. Hunt and Z. A. Handoo. Page 55 in: Root-Knot Nematodes. R. N. Perry et al., eds. CABI International, Wallingford, UK, 2010. (5) A. M. Mello et al. Nematol. Bras. 22(2):12, 1998.
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