The natural incidence of Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV) in common sow thistle (Sonchus oleraceus) from vegetable fields was assessed to determine the role of this weed species as a virus inoculum source. Twenty sow thistle plants with virus-like foliar symptoms including mosaic and malformations were collected from five vegetable fields in Tehran province, Iran, and analyzed by double antibody sandwich (DAS)-ELISA for the presence of ToMV, Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), and Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) using specific polyclonal antibodies (Agdia, Elkhart, IN). Six out of the 20 sow thistle plants tested by ELISA were infected with ToMV. This virus was detected in three of five vegetable fields surveyed, while CMV and TMV were not detected. Mosaic symptoms were associated with the ToMV infection, similar to those caused by TMV in common sow thistle in Iran (2). Viral infection was confirmed by RT-PCR using previously described specific primers to amplify a region in the coat protein gene of ToMV (3). The RT-PCR resulted in the amplification of an expected fragment of ~480 bp from ToMV-infected but not from healthy plants. The nucleotide sequence of the amplified DNA fragment was purified (GeneJET Gel Extraction Kit, Fermentas, Germany), directly sequenced, and deposited in GenBank as Accession No. KF527464. BLAST analysis showed 95 to 97% and 98 to 100% identity at the nucleotide and amino acid levels, respectively, with comparable sequences of other ToMV isolates (GenBank AF062519, FN985165, GQ280794, and JX857634). Mechanical inoculation of sow thistle plants with sap of symptomatic sow thistles reproduced symptoms of field-infected sow thistles. The presence of ToMV in the inoculated plants was confirmed by ELISA and RT-PCR. This suggested that ToMV could be the causal agent of the disease on sow thistle. In our earlier studies, the distribution and genetic diversity of ToMV isolates infecting vegetable crops and weed plants were studied (1); however, to our knowledge, this is the first report of ToMV infecting common sow thistle in Iran.
References: (1) V. Aghamohammadi et al. J. Plant Pathol. 95:339, 2013. (2) A. Alishiri et al. Plant Pathol. J. 29:260, 2013. (3) B. Letschert et al. J. Virol. Methods 106:10, 2002.
Get ALL the Latest Updates for ICPP2018: PLANT HEALTH IN A GLOBAL ECONOMY. Follow APS!