In total, 230 single-conidial isolates of the fungal wheat pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici (formerly Septoria tritici, teleomorph: Mycosphaerella graminicola) were sampled in Morocco in 2008 and 2010 to assess resistance against quinone outside inhibitors (QoIs), a widely used group of fungicides in wheat pest management. All 134 isolates sampled in 2008 were QoI sensitive. In contrast, 9 of the 96 isolates from the 2010 collection were resistant, suggesting a recent emergence of the resistance. Mitochondrial (mt)DNA-sequence analyses identified four haplotypes among the resistant isolates. Wright's F statistics (FST) analyses from mtDNA sequences revealed a shallow population structure of Z. tritici within Morocco and a substantial asymmetric gene flow from Europe into Morocco. A phylogenetic reconstruction including Moroccan and European isolates clustered the haplotypes regardless of their geographic origin. The four Moroccan QoI-resistant mitochondrial haplotypes clustered in two distinct clades in the tree topology, suggesting at least two independent origins of the resistance. This study reported, for the first time, the occurrence of QoI-resistant genotypes of Z. tritici in Morocco. Our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that QoI resistance emerged very recently through parallel genetic adaptation in Morocco, although gene flow from Europe cannot be excluded.
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