Quinone-outside-inhibitor (QoI) fungicides are a safe and effective means of managing apple scab caused by Venturia inaequalis. To determine the prevalence of both quantitative (partial) and qualitative (complete) QoI resistance in V. inaequalis in the northeastern United States, we sampled single-lesion conidial isolates (n = 4,481) from 120 commercial and research orchards from 2004 to 2011 with a range of exposure to QoI fungicides from none to several applications a year. In all, 67% of these orchard populations of V. inaequalis were sensitive to QoI fungicides, 28% exhibited QoI practical resistance, and 5% were not sensitive QoI fungicides but had not become practically resistant. Isolates with qualitative QoI resistance, conferred by the G143A cytochrome b gene mutation, were found in 13 of the 34 QoI-resistant orchard populations. To evaluate the stability of the G143A mutation, 27 isolates were selected from different orchard populations to represent the scope of regional populations. These isolates were subcultured continuously in the presence or absence of the QoI fungicide trifloxystrobin. All isolates that initially possessed qualitative resistance maintained the resistant genotype (G143A) for six transfers over 6 months in both the absence and presence of trifloxystrobin. Given the observed QoI resistance in orchard populations of V. inaequalis and the stability of the G143A mutation in individual isolates, apple scab management paradigms must encompass strategies to limit selection of QoI resistance in the sensitive orchard populations remaining in the region.
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