Aphelenchoides bicaudatus nematodes were identified in planting materials and water samples from 35 floral ornamental nurseries in Taiwan. A pure line of the nematode was established from the bulk samples collected, and the nematode was identified as A. bicaudatus on the basis of morphometric data and the 18S gene sequence (GU984233). Host range tests were conducted by inoculating A. bicaudatus onto Phalaenopsis spp. strawberry, rice, bird's-nest fern, cyclamen, dendrobium, African violet, and saxifrage (all reported hosts of A. besseyi). Symptoms did not develop during the 4 weeks following inoculation. However, after staining, both eggs and nematodes inside plant tissue of Phalaenopsis roots, strawberry leaf buds, and rice sheath indicated that A. bicaudatus had established in these hosts. These results revealed a potential new host–parasite relationship of A. bicaudatus, and suggest that this nematode may infect these economically important hosts.