Ubame oak (Quercus phillyraeoides A. Gray) is native to eastern Asia, including China, Korea, and Japan. In 2009 and 2010, a powdery mildew on Q. phillyraeoides growing in clusters and singly was observed in three locations on the campus of Chonnam National University, Gwangju, Korea. White superficial conidia of the powdery mildew fungus occurred on adaxial and abaxial surfaces. However, the white powdery growth was more abundant on the adaxial surface. Leaf symptoms commonly appeared white from May to October. Along with the typical white powdery mildew, spot and/or necrotic symptoms with irregular violet-to-wine red surfaces were also frequently observed on overwintered leaves. A voucher specimen has been deposited in EML (Environmental Microbiology Laboratory) herbarium collection, Chonnam National University (EML-QUP1). Conidia were commonly formed singly but also occurred in chains. Primary conidia were obovoid to ellipsoid, with a rounded apex and subtruncate base. Secondary conidia were generally obovoid to ellipsoid or sometimes cylindrical but dolioform when mature. The size was 30.1 to 43.2 (average 37.7) × 14.1 to 21.1 (average 18.1) μm with length/width ratio of 1.8 to 2.4 (average 2.1). Conidiophores were erect and up to 102.2 μm long. No chasmothecia were found. From extracted genomic DNA, the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region inclusive of 5.8S rDNA was amplified with ITS1F (5′-CTTGGT CATTTAGAGGAAGT-3′) and LR5F (5′-GCTATCCTGAGGGAAAC-3′) primers (4). Sequence analysis by BLASTN search indicated that EML-QUP1 (GenBank Accession No. HQ328834) was closest to E. quercicola (GenBank Accession No. AB292691) with >99% identity (478 of 480), forming a monophyletic quercicola clade in the resulting phylogenetic analysis. The causal fungus was determined to be Erysiphe quercicola on the basis of morphology and sequence data analysis. Major genera including Cystotheca, Erysiphe, Microsphaera, and Phyllactinia have been reported to cause powdery mildews on Quercus plants. Until now, 22 Erysiphe species including E. abbreviata, E. alphitoides, E. calocladophora, E. gracilis, E. polygoni, and E. quercicola have been reported to cause powdery mildews on Quercus spp. (1). Of these, four Erysiphe species including E. alphitoides, E. gracilis, E. quercicola, and an unidentified Erysiphe sp. have been found on Q. phillyraeoides from Japan (1–3). E. quercicola was reported to occur on five Quercus species: Q. crispula, Q. phillyraeoides, and Q. serrata in Japan, Q. robur in Australia, and Quercus sp. in Australia, Iran, and Thailand (1). To our knowledge, this is the first report of leaf powdery mildew caused by E. quercicola on Q. phillyraeoides in Korea.
References: (1) D. F. Farr and A. Y. Rossman. Fungal Databases, Systematic Mycology and Microbiology Laboratory, ARS, USDA. Retrieved October 7, 2010, from http://nt.ars-grin.gov/fungaldatabases/, 2010. (2) S. Limkaisang et al. Mycoscience 47:327, 2006. (3) S. Takamatsu et al. Mycol. Res. 111:809, 2007. (4) T. J. White et al. PCR Protocols: A Guide to Methods and Applications. Academic Press, San Diego, 1990.
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