Venturia inaequalis, the causal agent of apple scab, is controlled primarily by fungicides. Long-term, extensive fungicide use has led to the development of resistance to multiple fungicides. To assess fungicide resistance, isolates of V. inaequalis were collected from Indiana and Michigan orchards. Single-spore derived isolates were evaluated by mycelium growth assays with previously determined discriminatory doses on media containing dodine, kresoxim-methyl, myclobutanil, or thiophanate-methyl. Of 195 isolates tested, 5.2, 0.7, 57.0, and 92.6% of isolates were found to be resistant to dodine, kresoxim-methyl, myclobutanil, and thiophanate-methyl, respectively. This is the first report of kresoxim-methyl field resistance in these states. Isolates resistant or shifted to a single fungicide were often found to have multiple fungicide resistance. Of all isolates tested, 38% were identified as resistant or shifted to two fungicides, and 12% were resistant or shifted to all four fungicides tested. No fitness penalty was found for isolates resistant to multiple fungicides based on a statistical analysis of mycelial growth and conidial production.
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